. The median lactate concentration for the entire sample set was 4.4 mmol/g. Samples could be divided into low v. high lactate groups based on this median. The range of median lactate values for LABC biopsies was 0.6 to 8.0 mmol/g, and the median range for benign breast tissue was 0.8 1.9 mmol/g. The quartile range and 95% confidence intervals demonstrated a wide range of lactate values; the 95th percentile showed lactate levels greater than12 mmol/g. These values correspond to the lactate concentration range seen in microregions in each specimen: fifth percentile/minimum, twenty-fifth percentile, fiftieth percentile/median, seventy-fifth percentile and ninety-fifth percentile/ maximum. Samples are arranged in ascending order of median lactate concentrations. High and low lactate groups were determined based on median lactate concentrations.4.4 mmol/g. LABC5 and bb2 specimens are missing due to unavailable clinical information on these patients. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075154.t001 median values were in the range of 7 mmol/g with microregional variation extending as high as 40 mmol/g. Two of three biopsies that did not have any invasive cancer showed lower lactate accumulation than the majority of biopsies with invasive cancer. The two specimens that represented second biopsy site from the same patient fell into the same high or low lactate group as the first biopsy site. Specimens LABC1 and LABC10 are biopsies from the same patient and are in the low lactate group, while specimens order UNC0642 LABC15 and LABC21 are from another patient and are in the high lactate group. The median lactate concentrations measured in LABC1 and LABC10 were significantly different, while the median lactate concentrations measured in LABC15 and LABC21 were not. From these dual biopsy sites from one tumor, the intra-tumor metabolic heterogeneity is illustrated, indicating that lactate levels can vary significantly among different areas of the same tumor. Lactate uptake and metabolism occurs in vitro in R3230Ac cells Before studying lactate metabolism in cells it was important to assess cell viability after lactate treatment to ensure that the metabolic results would not be skewed by dying cells. The range of lactate concentrations tested in vitro was defined by our experimental findings in LABC and the literature on lactate accumulation in tumors. Concentrations of 5 and 10 mM lactate reflect the concentrations found in the LABC biopsies and the median lactate concentration found in other solid tumors, such as head and neck and cervical cancer. It was previously published that microregions of some tumors can reach up to 40 mM lactate, which we defined as 9521749 our upper limit. 20 mM lactate was included in some experiments as an intermediary concentration between the low and high limits; however, this concentration was still higher than what was found in the clinical LABC specimens. The acute effects of lactate toxicity were examined using Annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D to assess apoptosis and membrane integrity, respectively, in cells exposed to lactate for 24 h. These studies were conducted in the presence and absence of glucose because it has been reported that 19147858 lactate accumulation can occur in the presence or absence of glucose in vivo. Additionally, we chose to use glucose-free media for a majority of our NMR studies in order to acquire higher signals for lactate and lactate-generated metabolites. When exogenous sodium lactate was supplemented in cell culture media . The median lactate concentration for the entire sample set was 4.4 mmol/g. Samples could be divided into low v. high lactate groups based on this median. The range of median lactate values for LABC biopsies was 0.6 to 8.0 mmol/g, and the median range for benign breast tissue was 0.8 1.9 mmol/g. The quartile range and 95% confidence intervals demonstrated a wide range of lactate values; the 95th percentile showed lactate levels greater than12 mmol/g. These values correspond to the lactate concentration range seen in microregions in each specimen: fifth percentile/minimum, twenty-fifth percentile, fiftieth percentile/median, seventy-fifth percentile and ninety-fifth percentile/ maximum. Samples are 18083779 arranged in ascending order of median lactate concentrations. High and low lactate groups were determined based on median lactate concentrations.4.4 mmol/g. LABC5 and bb2 specimens are missing due to unavailable clinical information on these patients. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075154.t001 median values were in the range of 7 mmol/g with microregional variation extending as high as 40 mmol/g. Two of three biopsies that did not have any invasive cancer showed lower lactate accumulation than the majority of biopsies with invasive cancer. The two specimens that represented second biopsy site from the same patient fell into the same high or low lactate group as the first biopsy site. Specimens LABC1 and LABC10 are biopsies from the same patient and are in the low lactate group, while specimens LABC15 and LABC21 are from another patient and are in the high lactate group. The median lactate concentrations measured in LABC1 and LABC10 were significantly different, while the median lactate concentrations measured in LABC15 and LABC21 were not. From these dual biopsy sites from one tumor, the intra-tumor metabolic heterogeneity is illustrated, indicating that lactate levels can vary significantly among different areas of the same tumor. Lactate uptake and metabolism occurs in vitro in R3230Ac cells Before studying lactate metabolism in cells it was important to assess cell viability after lactate treatment to ensure that the metabolic results would not be skewed by dying cells. The range of lactate concentrations tested in vitro was defined by our experimental findings in LABC and the literature on lactate accumulation in tumors. Concentrations of 5 and 10 mM lactate reflect the concentrations found in the LABC biopsies and the median lactate concentration found in other solid tumors, such as head and neck and cervical cancer. It was previously published that microregions of some tumors can reach up to 40 mM lactate, which we defined as our upper limit. 20 mM lactate was included in some experiments as an intermediary concentration between the low and high limits; however, this concentration was still higher than what was found in the clinical LABC specimens. The acute effects of lactate toxicity were examined using Annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D to assess apoptosis and membrane integrity, respectively, in cells exposed to lactate for 24 h. These studies were conducted in the presence and absence of glucose because it has been reported that lactate 18753409 accumulation can occur in the presence or absence of glucose in vivo. Additionally, we chose to use glucose-free media for a majority of our NMR studies in order to acquire higher signals for lactate and lactate-generated metabolites. When exogenous sodium lactate was supplemented in cell culture media

Levels of MRP1 were reported to increase after exposure to oxidative stress inducing agents

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