Crinology 151: 5662. six. Lam QL, Wang S, Ko OK, Kincade PW, Lu L Leptin signaling maintains B-cell homeostasis by means of induction of Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107: 1381213817. 7. Bates SH, Kulkarni RN, Seifert M, Myers MG Jr Roles for leptin receptor/STAT3-dependent and -independent signals within the regulation 1407003 of glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab 1: 169178. 7 A Leptin Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Melanoma 8. Huo L, Gamber K, Greeley S, Silva J, Huntoon N, et al. Leptindependent control of glucose balance and locomotor activity by POMC neurons. Cell Metab 9: 537547. 9. Minokoshi Y, Kim YB, Peroni OD, Fryer LG, Muller C, et al. Leptin stimulates fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nature 415: 339343. 10. Covey SD, Wideman RD, McDonald C, Unniappan S, Huynh F, et al. The pancreatic beta cell is often a key web site for mediating the effects of leptin on glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab 4: 291302. 11. Morioka T, Asilmaz E, Hu J, Dishinger JF, Kurpad AJ, et al. Disruption of leptin receptor expression within the pancreas straight impacts beta cell growth and function 23115181 in mice. J Clin Invest 117: 28602868. 12. Gray SL, Donald C, Jetha A, Covey SD, Kieffer TJ Hyperinsulinemia precedes insulin resistance in mice lacking pancreatic beta-cell leptin signaling. Endocrinology 151: 41784186. 13. Levi J, Gray SL, Speck M, Huynh FK, Babich SL, et al. Acute disruption of leptin signaling in vivo leads to enhanced insulin levels and insulin resistance. Endocrinology 152: 33853395. 14. Tartaglia LA, Dembski M, Weng X, Deng N, Culpepper J, et al. Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell 83: 1263 1271. 15. Ge H, Huang L, Pourbahrami T, Li C Generation of soluble leptin receptor by ectodomain shedding of membrane-spanning receptors in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 277: 4589845903. 16. Myers MG, Cowley MA, Munzberg H Mechanisms of leptin action and leptin resistance. Annu Rev Physiol 70: 537556. 17. Zabeau L, Verhee A, Catteeuw D, Faes L, Seeuws S, et al. Choice of non-competitive leptin antagonists making use of a random nanobody-based method. Biochem J 441: 425434. 18. Hamers-Casterman C, Atarhouch T, Muyldermans S, Robinson G, Hamers C, et al. Naturally occurring antibodies devoid of light chains. Nature 363: 446448. 19. van der Linden R, de Geus B, Stok W, Bos W, van Wassenaar D, et al. Induction of immune responses and molecular cloning in the heavy chain antibody repertoire of Lama glama. J Immunol Methods 240: 185195. 20. Coppieters K, Dreier T, Silence K, de Haard H, Lauwereys M, et al. Epigenetics Formatted anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha VHH proteins derived from camelids show superior potency and targeting to inflamed joints in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis. inhibitor Arthritis Rheum 54: 18561866. 21. Marroqui L, Gonzalez A, Neco P, Caballero-Garrido E, Vieira E, et al. Role of leptin in the pancreatic beta-cell: effects and signaling pathways. J Mol Endocrinol 49: R917. 22. Vance KW, Goding CR The transcription network regulating melanocyte improvement and melanoma. Pigment Cell Res 17: 318325. 23. Miller AJ, Mihm MC Jr Melanoma. N Engl J Med 355: 5165. 24. Kajimura S, Seale P, Tomaru T, Erdjument-Bromage H, Cooper MP, et al. Regulation of your brown and white fat gene applications by means of a PRDM16/CtBP transcriptional complicated. Genes Dev 22: 13971409. 25. Elmquist JK, Coppari R, Balthasar N, Ichinose M, Lowell BB Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling meals intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasi.Crinology 151: 5662. 6. Lam QL, Wang S, Ko OK, Kincade PW, Lu L Leptin signaling maintains B-cell homeostasis via induction of Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107: 1381213817. 7. Bates SH, Kulkarni RN, Seifert M, Myers MG Jr Roles for leptin receptor/STAT3-dependent and -independent signals within the regulation 1407003 of glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab 1: 169178. 7 A Leptin Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Melanoma 8. Huo L, Gamber K, Greeley S, Silva J, Huntoon N, et al. Leptindependent control of glucose balance and locomotor activity by POMC neurons. Cell Metab 9: 537547. 9. Minokoshi Y, Kim YB, Peroni OD, Fryer LG, Muller C, et al. Leptin stimulates fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nature 415: 339343. 10. Covey SD, Wideman RD, McDonald C, Unniappan S, Huynh F, et al. The pancreatic beta cell is often a essential website for mediating the effects of leptin on glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab 4: 291302. 11. Morioka T, Asilmaz E, Hu J, Dishinger JF, Kurpad AJ, et al. Disruption of leptin receptor expression inside the pancreas directly impacts beta cell growth and function 23115181 in mice. J Clin Invest 117: 28602868. 12. Gray SL, Donald C, Jetha A, Covey SD, Kieffer TJ Hyperinsulinemia precedes insulin resistance in mice lacking pancreatic beta-cell leptin signaling. Endocrinology 151: 41784186. 13. Levi J, Gray SL, Speck M, Huynh FK, Babich SL, et al. Acute disruption of leptin signaling in vivo results in increased insulin levels and insulin resistance. Endocrinology 152: 33853395. 14. Tartaglia LA, Dembski M, Weng X, Deng N, Culpepper J, et al. Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell 83: 1263 1271. 15. Ge H, Huang L, Pourbahrami T, Li C Generation of soluble leptin receptor by ectodomain shedding of membrane-spanning receptors in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 277: 4589845903. 16. Myers MG, Cowley MA, Munzberg H Mechanisms of leptin action and leptin resistance. Annu Rev Physiol 70: 537556. 17. Zabeau L, Verhee A, Catteeuw D, Faes L, Seeuws S, et al. Choice of non-competitive leptin antagonists using a random nanobody-based approach. Biochem J 441: 425434. 18. Hamers-Casterman C, Atarhouch T, Muyldermans S, Robinson G, Hamers C, et al. Naturally occurring antibodies devoid of light chains. Nature 363: 446448. 19. van der Linden R, de Geus B, Stok W, Bos W, van Wassenaar D, et al. Induction of immune responses and molecular cloning of the heavy chain antibody repertoire of Lama glama. J Immunol Strategies 240: 185195. 20. Coppieters K, Dreier T, Silence K, de Haard H, Lauwereys M, et al. Formatted anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha VHH proteins derived from camelids show superior potency and targeting to inflamed joints inside a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 54: 18561866. 21. Marroqui L, Gonzalez A, Neco P, Caballero-Garrido E, Vieira E, et al. Role of leptin within the pancreatic beta-cell: effects and signaling pathways. J Mol Endocrinol 49: R917. 22. Vance KW, Goding CR The transcription network regulating melanocyte improvement and melanoma. Pigment Cell Res 17: 318325. 23. Miller AJ, Mihm MC Jr Melanoma. N Engl J Med 355: 5165. 24. Kajimura S, Seale P, Tomaru T, Erdjument-Bromage H, Cooper MP, et al. Regulation on the brown and white fat gene applications through a PRDM16/CtBP transcriptional complex. Genes Dev 22: 13971409. 25. Elmquist JK, Coppari R, Balthasar N, Ichinose M, Lowell BB Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, physique weight, and glucose homeostasi.

Crinology 151: 5662. 6. Lam QL, Wang S, Ko OK, Kincade PW, Lu L

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