Ences longer than 1166 bp. A comparison of our assembly with ten T. scripta developmental genes that had already been deposited in Genbank showed that the embryonic transcriptome assembly covered 98 of the existing Tunicamycin biological activity sequences and was 99 identical to them (Table 2). Eight out of ten sequences had fewer than three differences between the existing and new sequences and four were identical. The length of the sequences in our assembly was longer than the existing sequences in every case. Assuming that the existing sequences are of high quality, these results suggest that not only is our assembly of high quality but that it also contains more complete contigs than existing Genbank sequences.The existing T. scripta brain transcriptome is enriched for genes involved in nervous system function [22]. To investigate if the embryonic transcriptome is relatively enriched for genes involved in embryonic development we compared the same ten genes to the brain transcriptome sequences. Only two of these developmental genes (En1 with a 235/717 bp match and Sox9 with a 290/340 bp match) are represented in the brain transcriptome. Both are shorter sequences than the corresponding embryonic transcriptome sequences. The other eight sequences are not present. Comparing the two transcriptomes, 88 of all the sequences in the brain transcriptome are found in the embryonic transcriptome (with an average of 99 sequence identity and 93 coverage). Conversely, only 22 of the embryonic transcriptome sequences are found in the brain transcriptome (with an average of 99 sequence identity and 28 coverage). The larger embryonic transcriptome thus substantially increases the number of reported T. scripta transcript sequences and complements the existing brain transcriptome. 67,692 likely protein sequences were identified in the embryonic transcripts with an N50 length of 394aa. We screened these protein sequences for duplicates and identified 6,049 duplicated protein sequences resulting in 61,643 unique protein sequences. Because we sequenced RNA from multiple embryos several alleles of each gene could potentially be present in the transcriptome. Since each protein was identified from a unique assembled transcript sequence these duplicates most likely Gracillin site represent synonymous allelic differences or sequence variation in non-coding regions. We used Blast2GO [25] to assign gene ontology (GO) terms and Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers to each predicted protein sequence. Blast2Go analysis was based on the results of a BLASTP search of each sequence against the Genbank non-redundant (nr) protein database. Recent phylogenetic analyses have placed turtles eitherRed-Eared Slider Turtle Embryonic TranscriptomeFigure 1. Identification of T. scripta BMP2-7 genes. The T. scripta transcriptome was queried with BMP protein sequences from other organisms. Sequences were aligned and excessively gapped positions were removed (final size of dataset = 285aa/species). Their ML relationships were inferred using MetaPIGA. Labels on nodes indicate posterior probabilities. Scale bar units are the number of amino acid substitutions per site. Accession numbers are to the right of each sequence name. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066357.gclose to Archosaurians (crocodilians+birds) or Lepidosaurians (lizards) in the tree of life [22,31?3]. One 1676428 prediction about our assembly is that the protein sequences should be most similar to one of these groups of organisms. The three species with the largest absolut.Ences longer than 1166 bp. A comparison of our assembly with ten T. scripta developmental genes that had already been deposited in Genbank showed that the embryonic transcriptome assembly covered 98 of the existing sequences and was 99 identical to them (Table 2). Eight out of ten sequences had fewer than three differences between the existing and new sequences and four were identical. The length of the sequences in our assembly was longer than the existing sequences in every case. Assuming that the existing sequences are of high quality, these results suggest that not only is our assembly of high quality but that it also contains more complete contigs than existing Genbank sequences.The existing T. scripta brain transcriptome is enriched for genes involved in nervous system function [22]. To investigate if the embryonic transcriptome is relatively enriched for genes involved in embryonic development we compared the same ten genes to the brain transcriptome sequences. Only two of these developmental genes (En1 with a 235/717 bp match and Sox9 with a 290/340 bp match) are represented in the brain transcriptome. Both are shorter sequences than the corresponding embryonic transcriptome sequences. The other eight sequences are not present. Comparing the two transcriptomes, 88 of all the sequences in the brain transcriptome are found in the embryonic transcriptome (with an average of 99 sequence identity and 93 coverage). Conversely, only 22 of the embryonic transcriptome sequences are found in the brain transcriptome (with an average of 99 sequence identity and 28 coverage). The larger embryonic transcriptome thus substantially increases the number of reported T. scripta transcript sequences and complements the existing brain transcriptome. 67,692 likely protein sequences were identified in the embryonic transcripts with an N50 length of 394aa. We screened these protein sequences for duplicates and identified 6,049 duplicated protein sequences resulting in 61,643 unique protein sequences. Because we sequenced RNA from multiple embryos several alleles of each gene could potentially be present in the transcriptome. Since each protein was identified from a unique assembled transcript sequence these duplicates most likely represent synonymous allelic differences or sequence variation in non-coding regions. We used Blast2GO [25] to assign gene ontology (GO) terms and Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers to each predicted protein sequence. Blast2Go analysis was based on the results of a BLASTP search of each sequence against the Genbank non-redundant (nr) protein database. Recent phylogenetic analyses have placed turtles eitherRed-Eared Slider Turtle Embryonic TranscriptomeFigure 1. Identification of T. scripta BMP2-7 genes. The T. scripta transcriptome was queried with BMP protein sequences from other organisms. Sequences were aligned and excessively gapped positions were removed (final size of dataset = 285aa/species). Their ML relationships were inferred using MetaPIGA. Labels on nodes indicate posterior probabilities. Scale bar units are the number of amino acid substitutions per site. Accession numbers are to the right of each sequence name. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066357.gclose to Archosaurians (crocodilians+birds) or Lepidosaurians (lizards) in the tree of life [22,31?3]. One 1676428 prediction about our assembly is that the protein sequences should be most similar to one of these groups of organisms. The three species with the largest absolut.

Ences longer than 1166 bp. A comparison of our assembly with ten

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