Observed serum miR-210 levels were associated with treatment resistance, we retrospectively assessed whether patients were responding or resistant to ongoing therapy by calculating PSA change/day using NT-157 available clinical PSA values measured most recently prior to and at the time of serum miR210 draw. Therapies varied among patients in this retrospective population, but typically involved androgen deprivation therapy using a GnRH agonist in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent (e.g., docetaxel, mitoxantrone). We found that serum miR210 levels were significantly correlated with PSA change/day during treatment (Fig. 3A, Pearson r = 0.46, P = 0.029). To reduce potential noise from patients who are less informative due to low levels of purchase 101043-37-2 cancer-associated serum miRNAs, we also analyzed a subset of patients with high levels of mCRPCassociated serum miRNAs (i.e., “miRNA-high subset”, definedCirculating MiRNAs and Hypoxia in Prostate Canceras patients whose serum miR-141, miR-200a, miR-200c and/or miR-375 levels were greater than the highest value observed in any of the 25 healthy controls). In this group, the correlation between serum miR-210 and PSA change/day was even stronger (Fig. 3A, Pearson r = 0.61, P = 0.029). Furthermore, serum levels of miR-210 were strikingly lower in patients whose disease was responding to treatment (PSA stable or decreasing), as compared to those whose disease was resistant to treatment (PSA increasing by 25 ) (Fig. 3B, P = 0.001). Importantly, we did not observe this association with the other four serum miRNAs identified in our study (Fig. 3C). Our data suggests a model in which increased hypoxia response signaling is present in a subset of mCRPC patients, 1315463 leading to increased serum miR-210 and therapy resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of circulating miR210 in association with mCRPC. Our results raise the possibility that serum miR-210 levels could be used to identify a biologically distinct, subset of mCRPC patients with tumor-associated hypoxia for whom the development of alternative therapeutic approaches could be considered. For example, plasma miR-210 levels have been reported to be elevated in pancreatic cancer patients and as an indicator of hypoxia [23,24], as well as correlated with response to trastuzumab in breast cancer patients [25]. In addition, mTOR inhibitors are being studied in prostate cancer, and pre-clinical studies have shown that mTOR inhibition can lead to AKT activation and HIF-1a transcriptional activation [26]. In this context, we speculate that elevated serum miR-210 could have potential utility as a predictive or response biomarker for this class of therapeutics. In addition, it will be important in future studies to determine whether miR-210 is not only an indicator of hypoxia and aggressive biology, but also an active mediator of an aggressive disease phenotype in mCRPC patients. Given that the number of new agents effective against mCRPC is increasing, minimally invasive approaches such as serum miR210 analysis may lead to clinical decision aids that can differentiate and help guide treatment decisions by differentiating between biologically distinct disease subtypes. This could be particularly important in settings where PSA is less informative, such as in neuroendocrine differentiated subtypes, or when cancers progress to an androgen pathway independent state.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Negative control miRNAs are not significantly different i.Observed serum miR-210 levels were associated with treatment resistance, we retrospectively assessed whether patients were responding or resistant to ongoing therapy by calculating PSA change/day using available clinical PSA values measured most recently prior to and at the time of serum miR210 draw. Therapies varied among patients in this retrospective population, but typically involved androgen deprivation therapy using a GnRH agonist in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent (e.g., docetaxel, mitoxantrone). We found that serum miR210 levels were significantly correlated with PSA change/day during treatment (Fig. 3A, Pearson r = 0.46, P = 0.029). To reduce potential noise from patients who are less informative due to low levels of cancer-associated serum miRNAs, we also analyzed a subset of patients with high levels of mCRPCassociated serum miRNAs (i.e., “miRNA-high subset”, definedCirculating MiRNAs and Hypoxia in Prostate Canceras patients whose serum miR-141, miR-200a, miR-200c and/or miR-375 levels were greater than the highest value observed in any of the 25 healthy controls). In this group, the correlation between serum miR-210 and PSA change/day was even stronger (Fig. 3A, Pearson r = 0.61, P = 0.029). Furthermore, serum levels of miR-210 were strikingly lower in patients whose disease was responding to treatment (PSA stable or decreasing), as compared to those whose disease was resistant to treatment (PSA increasing by 25 ) (Fig. 3B, P = 0.001). Importantly, we did not observe this association with the other four serum miRNAs identified in our study (Fig. 3C). Our data suggests a model in which increased hypoxia response signaling is present in a subset of mCRPC patients, 1315463 leading to increased serum miR-210 and therapy resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of circulating miR210 in association with mCRPC. Our results raise the possibility that serum miR-210 levels could be used to identify a biologically distinct, subset of mCRPC patients with tumor-associated hypoxia for whom the development of alternative therapeutic approaches could be considered. For example, plasma miR-210 levels have been reported to be elevated in pancreatic cancer patients and as an indicator of hypoxia [23,24], as well as correlated with response to trastuzumab in breast cancer patients [25]. In addition, mTOR inhibitors are being studied in prostate cancer, and pre-clinical studies have shown that mTOR inhibition can lead to AKT activation and HIF-1a transcriptional activation [26]. In this context, we speculate that elevated serum miR-210 could have potential utility as a predictive or response biomarker for this class of therapeutics. In addition, it will be important in future studies to determine whether miR-210 is not only an indicator of hypoxia and aggressive biology, but also an active mediator of an aggressive disease phenotype in mCRPC patients. Given that the number of new agents effective against mCRPC is increasing, minimally invasive approaches such as serum miR210 analysis may lead to clinical decision aids that can differentiate and help guide treatment decisions by differentiating between biologically distinct disease subtypes. This could be particularly important in settings where PSA is less informative, such as in neuroendocrine differentiated subtypes, or when cancers progress to an androgen pathway independent state.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Negative control miRNAs are not significantly different i.

Observed serum miR-210 levels were associated with treatment resistance, we retrospectively

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