R moderate or intense, restored proliferation (Fig. 7) and the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus to the normal level (Fig. 8). We suppose that these hippocampal changes might contribute to prevent the onset of depression-like behavior. The mice fed a TD diet showed impairment of learning and memory without chronic stress (Fig. 5 and 6). These findings suggested that the decrease of brain tryptophan or 5-HT impaired learning and memory, which corresponds to the previous finding that serotonin transporter knockout rats, which showed a lower brain 5-HT level than wild-type rats, exhibited impaired memory as measured by the ORT [42]. These findings indicated that brain 5-HT is an important factor in learning and memory in mice. On the other hand, regular exercise prevented the loss of memory examined by the ORT during the 3rd week of CUS (Fig. 5), which corresponds with the findings of previous studies that regular exercise prevents stress-induced impairment of learning and memory examined by the water maze test [43]; nevertheless, the memory examined by PAT was impaired in the 1st week of CUS (Fig. 6). These findings suggest that regular exercise contributes to prevent not long-term but short-term memory loss. The formation of long-term memory requires the synthesis of several proteins, which include cAMP responsive element binding protein (CBP) [44] and BDNF [45]. As the mice fed on a TD diet could not synthesize these proteins because of in vivo TD, they could not avoid the impairment of long-term memory. Further study is required to examine the levels of CBP and BDNF in the brains of mice fed a TD diet. In summary, the present findings demonstrate that depressionlike behavior is KDM5A-IN-1 attributable not to 5-HT deficiency but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with the improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and without the recovery of hippocampal 5-HT. The impairment of learning and memory is attributable to TD, which is not prevented by regular exercise.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: TM. Performed the experiments: HL. Analyzed the data: HL TM. Contributed reagents/materials/ analysis tools: MO SO. Wrote the paper: HL TM.
Changes in the salivary microbiota are associated with various oral and systemic conditions, including caries, periodontal disease, cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and obesity [1?]. Studies of salivary bacterial communities initially used culture-based techniques [5,6]. However, the presence of numerous unculturable bacteria in the mouth, currently estimated to represent about one third of the 600 inventoried species in the curated Human Oral Microbiome Database [7], has necessitated the development of culture-independent approaches. These techniques include DNADNA hybridization [8] and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 16S rDNA amplicon libraries [1,9?2] or metagenome fragments [13]. The HTS-based methods, now widely used to study bacterial communities, allow the analysis of a small or large number of samples with the desired depth of coverage. Although significantly 23977191 better than culture-based approaches, the culture-independent methods may ML 281 introduce bias related to the DNA extraction procedure and the downstream molecular and informatics analyses. Enzymatic lysis of samples collected using oral swabs [14?6] has been used in the study of salivary bacterial communities. This protocol include.R moderate or intense, restored proliferation (Fig. 7) and the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus to the normal level (Fig. 8). We suppose that these hippocampal changes might contribute to prevent the onset of depression-like behavior. The mice fed a TD diet showed impairment of learning and memory without chronic stress (Fig. 5 and 6). These findings suggested that the decrease of brain tryptophan or 5-HT impaired learning and memory, which corresponds to the previous finding that serotonin transporter knockout rats, which showed a lower brain 5-HT level than wild-type rats, exhibited impaired memory as measured by the ORT [42]. These findings indicated that brain 5-HT is an important factor in learning and memory in mice. On the other hand, regular exercise prevented the loss of memory examined by the ORT during the 3rd week of CUS (Fig. 5), which corresponds with the findings of previous studies that regular exercise prevents stress-induced impairment of learning and memory examined by the water maze test [43]; nevertheless, the memory examined by PAT was impaired in the 1st week of CUS (Fig. 6). These findings suggest that regular exercise contributes to prevent not long-term but short-term memory loss. The formation of long-term memory requires the synthesis of several proteins, which include cAMP responsive element binding protein (CBP) [44] and BDNF [45]. As the mice fed on a TD diet could not synthesize these proteins because of in vivo TD, they could not avoid the impairment of long-term memory. Further study is required to examine the levels of CBP and BDNF in the brains of mice fed a TD diet. In summary, the present findings demonstrate that depressionlike behavior is attributable not to 5-HT deficiency but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with the improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and without the recovery of hippocampal 5-HT. The impairment of learning and memory is attributable to TD, which is not prevented by regular exercise.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: TM. Performed the experiments: HL. Analyzed the data: HL TM. Contributed reagents/materials/ analysis tools: MO SO. Wrote the paper: HL TM.
Changes in the salivary microbiota are associated with various oral and systemic conditions, including caries, periodontal disease, cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and obesity [1?]. Studies of salivary bacterial communities initially used culture-based techniques [5,6]. However, the presence of numerous unculturable bacteria in the mouth, currently estimated to represent about one third of the 600 inventoried species in the curated Human Oral Microbiome Database [7], has necessitated the development of culture-independent approaches. These techniques include DNADNA hybridization [8] and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 16S rDNA amplicon libraries [1,9?2] or metagenome fragments [13]. The HTS-based methods, now widely used to study bacterial communities, allow the analysis of a small or large number of samples with the desired depth of coverage. Although significantly 23977191 better than culture-based approaches, the culture-independent methods may introduce bias related to the DNA extraction procedure and the downstream molecular and informatics analyses. Enzymatic lysis of samples collected using oral swabs [14?6] has been used in the study of salivary bacterial communities. This protocol include.

R moderate or intense, restored proliferation (Fig. 7) and the survival of

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