The PKG specificity of the reactions : blank (complete reaction buffer), positive control (complete reaction buffer with a cGK positive control) and negative controls (samples in reaction buffer without cGMP or without ATP and cGMP, samples in complete reaction buffer added with the protein kinase inhibitor K-252a from Sigma). OD was quantified at dual wavelengths of 450/540 nm in a Spectramax Plus 384 spectrophotometer (Molecular Devices). The PKG enzyme activity was expressed as the OD for 5 mg of total proteins. The mean and standard error were calculated for each experimental condition. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-way ANOVA followed by a Fisher’s PLSD to test for significant differences between behavioral variants.homologous to for is present in the A. pisum genome (data not shown). Figure S1 shows the nucleotide and CAL 120 custom synthesis deduced amino acid sequences of the two complete cDNAs. These sequences are 3420 and 3338 bp long respectively, and contain an ORF of 2331 bp for Apfor1 and 2112 pb for Apfor2. They differ only in their 5′ region (the first two exons) and perfectly overlap for their following 2462 bp (Figure 1), as a result of alternative splicing. Exons 1 and 2 of Apfor2 are indeed located in the intron 2 of the Apfor gene suggesting that these exons are spliced in the Apfor1 variant. Both Apfor1 and 16985061 Apfor2 sequences are about 56 identical at the nucleotide level and 70 similar at the amino acid level to the for gene sequence of D. melanogaster. Analysis of the two deduced amino acid sequences reveals typical structures of a cGMPdependent protein kinase including a N-terminal region containing a regulatory compartment (a dimerization domain with a leucine zipper motif, autophosphorylation sites and an autoinhibitory domain), two tandem cyclic nucleotide-binding domains and a serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain as determined by PROSITE at SIB ExPASy Bioinformatics Resource Portal (http://prosite.expasy.org). Despite their differences in the 5′ region, both transcripts encode putatively complete and active PKG proteins suggesting they are two functional alternative splicing variants of the same gene.Comparative expression of Apfor in 23148522 morphs and developmental stagesThe relative abundance of Apfor transcripts was determined among winged (obtained under high population density) and wingless morphs (reared under low population density) of the different developmental stages (L1 to adult) using quantitative realtime PCR assays. A first set of primers, designed to potentially amplify all the different Apfor transcripts (Table S1), targeted a conserved region overlapping the exons 15 and 16 at the 3′ end of the kinase domain. Results indicated that Apfor is AZ-876 similarly expressed in winged and wingless morphs during development (one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s PLSD tests, F = 1,67, P.0,05) (Figure 2A). Nevertheless, a noticeable increase of Apfor expression could be detected for the L1, L2 and L4W stages. Two other sets of primers, targeting the second exon of each transcript, were designed to specifically amplify each of the two Apfor transcripts (Table S1). The expression of Apfor1 is significantly higher in the L2 and L4W stages than in other stages (F = 5,12; P,0,001 and P,0,05 respectively) (Figure 2B). A similar difference in the expression levels is observed for Apfor2 (F = 4,06; P,0,05 for both L2 and L4W stages) (Figure 2C). The expression patterns of the two transcripts are thus roughly similar during pea aph.The PKG specificity of the reactions : blank (complete reaction buffer), positive control (complete reaction buffer with a cGK positive control) and negative controls (samples in reaction buffer without cGMP or without ATP and cGMP, samples in complete reaction buffer added with the protein kinase inhibitor K-252a from Sigma). OD was quantified at dual wavelengths of 450/540 nm in a Spectramax Plus 384 spectrophotometer (Molecular Devices). The PKG enzyme activity was expressed as the OD for 5 mg of total proteins. The mean and standard error were calculated for each experimental condition. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-way ANOVA followed by a Fisher’s PLSD to test for significant differences between behavioral variants.homologous to for is present in the A. pisum genome (data not shown). Figure S1 shows the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the two complete cDNAs. These sequences are 3420 and 3338 bp long respectively, and contain an ORF of 2331 bp for Apfor1 and 2112 pb for Apfor2. They differ only in their 5′ region (the first two exons) and perfectly overlap for their following 2462 bp (Figure 1), as a result of alternative splicing. Exons 1 and 2 of Apfor2 are indeed located in the intron 2 of the Apfor gene suggesting that these exons are spliced in the Apfor1 variant. Both Apfor1 and 16985061 Apfor2 sequences are about 56 identical at the nucleotide level and 70 similar at the amino acid level to the for gene sequence of D. melanogaster. Analysis of the two deduced amino acid sequences reveals typical structures of a cGMPdependent protein kinase including a N-terminal region containing a regulatory compartment (a dimerization domain with a leucine zipper motif, autophosphorylation sites and an autoinhibitory domain), two tandem cyclic nucleotide-binding domains and a serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain as determined by PROSITE at SIB ExPASy Bioinformatics Resource Portal (http://prosite.expasy.org). Despite their differences in the 5′ region, both transcripts encode putatively complete and active PKG proteins suggesting they are two functional alternative splicing variants of the same gene.Comparative expression of Apfor in 23148522 morphs and developmental stagesThe relative abundance of Apfor transcripts was determined among winged (obtained under high population density) and wingless morphs (reared under low population density) of the different developmental stages (L1 to adult) using quantitative realtime PCR assays. A first set of primers, designed to potentially amplify all the different Apfor transcripts (Table S1), targeted a conserved region overlapping the exons 15 and 16 at the 3′ end of the kinase domain. Results indicated that Apfor is similarly expressed in winged and wingless morphs during development (one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s PLSD tests, F = 1,67, P.0,05) (Figure 2A). Nevertheless, a noticeable increase of Apfor expression could be detected for the L1, L2 and L4W stages. Two other sets of primers, targeting the second exon of each transcript, were designed to specifically amplify each of the two Apfor transcripts (Table S1). The expression of Apfor1 is significantly higher in the L2 and L4W stages than in other stages (F = 5,12; P,0,001 and P,0,05 respectively) (Figure 2B). A similar difference in the expression levels is observed for Apfor2 (F = 4,06; P,0,05 for both L2 and L4W stages) (Figure 2C). The expression patterns of the two transcripts are thus roughly similar during pea aph.

The PKG specificity of the reactions : blank (complete reaction buffer), positive

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