N-related peptides and their receptors elicit profound scratching like morphine in animals. In the present study, effects of intrathecal morphine at antinociceptive doses on scratching 10781694 behavior were determined in mice [36,37]. However, morphine failed to elicit scratching in mice that could be distinguished from the intrathecal vehicle injection. Inability of intrathecal morphine to induce profound scratching has been previously documented in rats [9], although a few studies have reported some scratching activity in response to intrathecal morphine in mice [17,22]. However, both the magnitude and duration of this scratching activity (i.e., total ,20?0 bouts lasting 10?5 min) are very small as ITI 007 chemical information compared to the non-opioid peptides like GRP (,400 bouts lasting 40 min) or bombesin (,700 bouts lasting over 60 min) suggesting the dramatic differences in the scratching activity elicited by different compounds in the same species. On the other hand in monkeys, antinociceptive doses of intrathecal morphine elicited intense scratching response (.3500 scratches lasting over 6 h) [33] indicating that species differences affect the ability of intrathecal morphine to evoke scratching. It is not entirely clear why the rodents, unlike humans and monkeys, are insensitive to intrathecal opioid-induced scratching. It is possible that in rodents, the neurocircuitry modulating intrathecal opioid-induced antinociception may be independent of the itch neurotransmission, i.e. spinal MOP receptors may play a role in driving antinociception but cannot concomitantly elicit the scratching behavior in rodents. It has been demonstrated that there is a subset of inhibitory interneurons regulating itch in the dorsal horn of mouse spinal cord [38]. It is Cyproconazole web important to compare these inhibitory circuits between rodents and primates in the dorsal horn that may mediate cross-inhibition between itch and pain modalities. On the other hand, supraspinal administration of bombesin elicits intense scratching in both rodents and monkeys [7,9,18]. However, ability of intrathecally administered bombesinrelated peptides to evoke scratching response remains to be documented in monkeys. Therefore, attributed to the species differences, rodent models may not be ideal to study intrathecal opioid-induced itch but can be well utilized to investigate the mechanisms underlying non-opioid (e.g. GRPr) mediated itch scratching. Second part of the study determined the independent role of spinal GRPr and NMBr in GRP and NMB-induced scratching using intrathecal administration of selective GRPr antagonist RC3095 and selective NMBr antagonist PD168368. Pretreatment with RC-3095 (0.03?.1 nmol) dose dependently caused a 3 to 10fold parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of GRPinduced scratching indicating that the antagonism was competitive and reversible at GRPr. Thus, GRP-induced scratching was due to the selective activation of GRPr. Similarly, NMB-induced scratching was mediated by the selective activation of NMBr. Interestingly, these active doses of RC-3095 and PD168368 when cross-examined against NMB and GRP, no change in the dose response curves of NMB or GRP was observed. This indicates that GRPr do not mediate NMB-induced scratching and vice versa. Previous studies using intracerebroventricular administration have documented such independent mechanisms of both supraspinal GRP and NMB to elicit scratching in rats [18]. These studies demonstrate that both GRPr and NMBr in the centr.N-related peptides and their receptors elicit profound scratching like morphine in animals. In the present study, effects of intrathecal morphine at antinociceptive doses on scratching 10781694 behavior were determined in mice [36,37]. However, morphine failed to elicit scratching in mice that could be distinguished from the intrathecal vehicle injection. Inability of intrathecal morphine to induce profound scratching has been previously documented in rats [9], although a few studies have reported some scratching activity in response to intrathecal morphine in mice [17,22]. However, both the magnitude and duration of this scratching activity (i.e., total ,20?0 bouts lasting 10?5 min) are very small as compared to the non-opioid peptides like GRP (,400 bouts lasting 40 min) or bombesin (,700 bouts lasting over 60 min) suggesting the dramatic differences in the scratching activity elicited by different compounds in the same species. On the other hand in monkeys, antinociceptive doses of intrathecal morphine elicited intense scratching response (.3500 scratches lasting over 6 h) [33] indicating that species differences affect the ability of intrathecal morphine to evoke scratching. It is not entirely clear why the rodents, unlike humans and monkeys, are insensitive to intrathecal opioid-induced scratching. It is possible that in rodents, the neurocircuitry modulating intrathecal opioid-induced antinociception may be independent of the itch neurotransmission, i.e. spinal MOP receptors may play a role in driving antinociception but cannot concomitantly elicit the scratching behavior in rodents. It has been demonstrated that there is a subset of inhibitory interneurons regulating itch in the dorsal horn of mouse spinal cord [38]. It is important to compare these inhibitory circuits between rodents and primates in the dorsal horn that may mediate cross-inhibition between itch and pain modalities. On the other hand, supraspinal administration of bombesin elicits intense scratching in both rodents and monkeys [7,9,18]. However, ability of intrathecally administered bombesinrelated peptides to evoke scratching response remains to be documented in monkeys. Therefore, attributed to the species differences, rodent models may not be ideal to study intrathecal opioid-induced itch but can be well utilized to investigate the mechanisms underlying non-opioid (e.g. GRPr) mediated itch scratching. Second part of the study determined the independent role of spinal GRPr and NMBr in GRP and NMB-induced scratching using intrathecal administration of selective GRPr antagonist RC3095 and selective NMBr antagonist PD168368. Pretreatment with RC-3095 (0.03?.1 nmol) dose dependently caused a 3 to 10fold parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of GRPinduced scratching indicating that the antagonism was competitive and reversible at GRPr. Thus, GRP-induced scratching was due to the selective activation of GRPr. Similarly, NMB-induced scratching was mediated by the selective activation of NMBr. Interestingly, these active doses of RC-3095 and PD168368 when cross-examined against NMB and GRP, no change in the dose response curves of NMB or GRP was observed. This indicates that GRPr do not mediate NMB-induced scratching and vice versa. Previous studies using intracerebroventricular administration have documented such independent mechanisms of both supraspinal GRP and NMB to elicit scratching in rats [18]. These studies demonstrate that both GRPr and NMBr in the centr.

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