Ncoding a dominant-negative form of AKT1 (AKTDN) or an empty vector (Mock). Data represent the fold increase relative to the initial value (n = 3). P,0.05 by two-way ANOVA. (B) Pre-rRNA level in human endothelial cells infected with AKTDN or Mock (n = 6). (C) Real-time PCR analysis of the expression of ND6 (encoding NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 6 (complex I)) in human endothelial cells infected with AKTDN or Mock (n = 6). (D) Mitochondrial DNA content of human endothelial cells infected with AKTDN or Mock assessed by real-time PCR (n = 3). Data are shown as the mean 6 s.e.m. 10457188 *P,0.05 by Student’s t-test. (E) Survival of C. elegans fed with bacteria containing a control vector or the dsRNA construct targeting akt-1. Knockdown of akt-1 significantly prolonged the lifespan. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (F) Mitochondrial DNA content in C. elegans prepared as in Fig. 4E (n = 8). (G) Expression of ife-2 (encoding translation initiation factor 4F, cap-binding subunit (eIF4E)) and rps-11 (encoding a small ribosomal subunit S11 protein) in C. elegans prepared as in Fig. 3e (n = 8). Data are shown as the mean 6 s.e.m. *P,0.05, **P,0.01 by Student’s t-test. (H) Activation of AKT-1 by knockdown of daf-18 (a homologue of PTEN) led to significant shortening of the lifespan of wild-type worms. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (I) Knockdown of rps-11 by RNAi led to significant prolongation of the lifespan of wild-type worms. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (J) Mitochondrial DNA content in C. elegans prepared as in Fig. 4I (n = 5). Data are shown as the mean 6 s.e.m. *P,0.05 by Student’s t-test. (K) 1315463 Knockdown of atp-2 (encoding a subunit of ATP synthase, mitochondrial complex V) by RNAi significantly prolonged the lifespan of wild-type worms. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (L) Knockdown of rps-11 by RNAi improved shortening of the lifespan of worms with daf18 RNAi SC66 site treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069178.greduced oxidative stress, as demonstrated by a decrease of 4hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity in the liver and a decline of 8isoprostane excretion in the urine (Fig. 3E, F), suggesting that partial inhibition of Akt1 activity ameliorated the age-associated increase of oxidative stress. To further investigate the effects of Akt1 haploinsufficiency on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, we isolated hepatocytes from Akt1+/?mice and their littermate controls. Then these cells were subjected to FACS analysis to detect tetramethylrhodamine, methyl ester (TMRM), and dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. This revealed that hepatocytes from Akt1+/?mice showed a significant decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with hepatocytes from their wild-type littermates (Fig. 3G, H). We next examined the activity of mitochondria isolated from the hepatocytes of Akt1+/?mice and their littermate controls, and found that the maximum JW-74 respiration rate of isolated mitochondria did not differ between the two groups (Fig. 3I). These results indicated that the amounts of mitochondria were decreased in Akt1+/?mice compared with their littermate controls, but the activity of per mg mitochondrion was not impaired by haploinsufficiency of Akt1. We noted that the expression of FoxOregulated antioxidant genes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, did not differ between Akt1+/?mice and their littermate controls (Fig. S6). Since ROS are a byproduct of normal mitochondrial respiration, a decrease in the numbe.Ncoding a dominant-negative form of AKT1 (AKTDN) or an empty vector (Mock). Data represent the fold increase relative to the initial value (n = 3). P,0.05 by two-way ANOVA. (B) Pre-rRNA level in human endothelial cells infected with AKTDN or Mock (n = 6). (C) Real-time PCR analysis of the expression of ND6 (encoding NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 6 (complex I)) in human endothelial cells infected with AKTDN or Mock (n = 6). (D) Mitochondrial DNA content of human endothelial cells infected with AKTDN or Mock assessed by real-time PCR (n = 3). Data are shown as the mean 6 s.e.m. 10457188 *P,0.05 by Student’s t-test. (E) Survival of C. elegans fed with bacteria containing a control vector or the dsRNA construct targeting akt-1. Knockdown of akt-1 significantly prolonged the lifespan. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (F) Mitochondrial DNA content in C. elegans prepared as in Fig. 4E (n = 8). (G) Expression of ife-2 (encoding translation initiation factor 4F, cap-binding subunit (eIF4E)) and rps-11 (encoding a small ribosomal subunit S11 protein) in C. elegans prepared as in Fig. 3e (n = 8). Data are shown as the mean 6 s.e.m. *P,0.05, **P,0.01 by Student’s t-test. (H) Activation of AKT-1 by knockdown of daf-18 (a homologue of PTEN) led to significant shortening of the lifespan of wild-type worms. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (I) Knockdown of rps-11 by RNAi led to significant prolongation of the lifespan of wild-type worms. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (J) Mitochondrial DNA content in C. elegans prepared as in Fig. 4I (n = 5). Data are shown as the mean 6 s.e.m. *P,0.05 by Student’s t-test. (K) 1315463 Knockdown of atp-2 (encoding a subunit of ATP synthase, mitochondrial complex V) by RNAi significantly prolonged the lifespan of wild-type worms. P,0.001 by the log-rank test. (L) Knockdown of rps-11 by RNAi improved shortening of the lifespan of worms with daf18 RNAi treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069178.greduced oxidative stress, as demonstrated by a decrease of 4hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity in the liver and a decline of 8isoprostane excretion in the urine (Fig. 3E, F), suggesting that partial inhibition of Akt1 activity ameliorated the age-associated increase of oxidative stress. To further investigate the effects of Akt1 haploinsufficiency on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, we isolated hepatocytes from Akt1+/?mice and their littermate controls. Then these cells were subjected to FACS analysis to detect tetramethylrhodamine, methyl ester (TMRM), and dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. This revealed that hepatocytes from Akt1+/?mice showed a significant decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with hepatocytes from their wild-type littermates (Fig. 3G, H). We next examined the activity of mitochondria isolated from the hepatocytes of Akt1+/?mice and their littermate controls, and found that the maximum respiration rate of isolated mitochondria did not differ between the two groups (Fig. 3I). These results indicated that the amounts of mitochondria were decreased in Akt1+/?mice compared with their littermate controls, but the activity of per mg mitochondrion was not impaired by haploinsufficiency of Akt1. We noted that the expression of FoxOregulated antioxidant genes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, did not differ between Akt1+/?mice and their littermate controls (Fig. S6). Since ROS are a byproduct of normal mitochondrial respiration, a decrease in the numbe.

Ncoding a dominant-negative form of AKT1 (AKTDN) or an empty vector

About author

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.