In the first year after ZK-36374 web initiation of ART (13.6/100 py in the first 12 months vs. 7.0/100 py after 12 months). In adjusted proportional hazards models there was little evidence for a difference in the rate of LTFU in those with KS compared to those without, both in first year (adjusted HR: 1.55; 95 CI: 0.85?.82) and after a year on 115103-85-0 web treatment (adjusted HR: 1.21; 95 CI: 0.54?.70). In competing risks analyses with death as the competing event, the rate of LTFU was closely similar but attenuated (HR: 1.02; 95 CI: 0.59?.78).HR = hazard ratio, CI = confidence interval, KS = Kaposi sarcoma, ART = antiretroviral therapy, pys = person years, hazard ratios from a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Models adjusted for sex, baseline CD4 count, age, treatment site, tuberculosis at ART initiation, year of ART initiation. *pys = person years. **LTFU = Lost to follow up defined as having missed a clinic appointment by at least 3-months after the scheduled visit date. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064392.t`1.42 (0.88?.29)1.55 (0.85?.82)1.1.1.1.21 (0.54?.70)Person time (years) Rate/100 pys*Immunologic and Virologic FailureAmong the 12,337 subjects alive and in care at 6 months on treatment, CD4 count values were available for 8,676 (70 ) of these (63 of those with KS and 70 of those without KS). By 6 months on treatment, nearly a quarter of patients (23.7 ; 95 CI: 17.3?2.7 ) with KS had failed to achieve a CD4 increase of 50 cells/mm3 compared to 18.1 (95 CI: 17.5?9.1) of those without KS (Table 3). The median increase in CD4 count by 6 months on ART was 98 cells/mm3 (IQR 58?64 cells/mm3) among the KS group and 121 cells/mm3 (IQR 66?90 cells/mm3) for those without KS. Patients with KS gained, on average, 29 fewer CD4 cells (95 CI: 7?2 cells/mm3) than those without KS over the same time period. Among the 11,667 patients who survived to a year on treatment, CD4 count values were available for 7,157 (62 ) of subjects. 29.9 (95 CI: 21.4?9.6 ) of KS patients failed to achieve a 100 cell increase in CD4 count compared to 23.3 (95 CI: 22.3?4.3 ) of patients without KS. The median increase in CD4 count by 12 months on ART was 150 cells/mm3 (IQR 90?25 cells/mm3) among the KS group and 175 cells/mm3 (IQR: 105?60cells/mm3) for those without KS. Using adjusted generalised estimating equations, those with KS gained an estimated 9 fewer CD4 cells (95 CI -21?0 cells/mm3) than those without KS over the first year of ART. The predicted CD4 trajectories from start of ART suggested some advantage for those without KS (Figure 2). Despite starting on very similar CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, those with KS gained fewer CD4 cells over the first year of treatment compared to those without KS. By the end of the first year the rate of increase in CD4 count was similar for the groups, though the group without KS retained consistently higher CD4 cell counts after treatment initiation. In log-binomial models, patients with KS were more likely to fail to achieve a 50 cells/mm3 increase (RR 1.43; 95 CI: 0.99?.06) and 100 cells/mm3 increase (RR 1.20; 95 CI: 0.84?.73) in CD4 count at 6- and 12-months on treatment respectively (Table 3). Sensitivity analyses yielded no qualitative differences in results when attributing either achieving or failing to achieve the outcome to all missing CD4 count responses at 6 or 12 months on treatment (results not shown). Virologic response to ART was favourable among both groups (Table 3). By 6 months on treatment, only 11 of.In the first year after initiation of ART (13.6/100 py in the first 12 months vs. 7.0/100 py after 12 months). In adjusted proportional hazards models there was little evidence for a difference in the rate of LTFU in those with KS compared to those without, both in first year (adjusted HR: 1.55; 95 CI: 0.85?.82) and after a year on treatment (adjusted HR: 1.21; 95 CI: 0.54?.70). In competing risks analyses with death as the competing event, the rate of LTFU was closely similar but attenuated (HR: 1.02; 95 CI: 0.59?.78).HR = hazard ratio, CI = confidence interval, KS = Kaposi sarcoma, ART = antiretroviral therapy, pys = person years, hazard ratios from a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Models adjusted for sex, baseline CD4 count, age, treatment site, tuberculosis at ART initiation, year of ART initiation. *pys = person years. **LTFU = Lost to follow up defined as having missed a clinic appointment by at least 3-months after the scheduled visit date. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064392.t`1.42 (0.88?.29)1.55 (0.85?.82)1.1.1.1.21 (0.54?.70)Person time (years) Rate/100 pys*Immunologic and Virologic FailureAmong the 12,337 subjects alive and in care at 6 months on treatment, CD4 count values were available for 8,676 (70 ) of these (63 of those with KS and 70 of those without KS). By 6 months on treatment, nearly a quarter of patients (23.7 ; 95 CI: 17.3?2.7 ) with KS had failed to achieve a CD4 increase of 50 cells/mm3 compared to 18.1 (95 CI: 17.5?9.1) of those without KS (Table 3). The median increase in CD4 count by 6 months on ART was 98 cells/mm3 (IQR 58?64 cells/mm3) among the KS group and 121 cells/mm3 (IQR 66?90 cells/mm3) for those without KS. Patients with KS gained, on average, 29 fewer CD4 cells (95 CI: 7?2 cells/mm3) than those without KS over the same time period. Among the 11,667 patients who survived to a year on treatment, CD4 count values were available for 7,157 (62 ) of subjects. 29.9 (95 CI: 21.4?9.6 ) of KS patients failed to achieve a 100 cell increase in CD4 count compared to 23.3 (95 CI: 22.3?4.3 ) of patients without KS. The median increase in CD4 count by 12 months on ART was 150 cells/mm3 (IQR 90?25 cells/mm3) among the KS group and 175 cells/mm3 (IQR: 105?60cells/mm3) for those without KS. Using adjusted generalised estimating equations, those with KS gained an estimated 9 fewer CD4 cells (95 CI -21?0 cells/mm3) than those without KS over the first year of ART. The predicted CD4 trajectories from start of ART suggested some advantage for those without KS (Figure 2). Despite starting on very similar CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, those with KS gained fewer CD4 cells over the first year of treatment compared to those without KS. By the end of the first year the rate of increase in CD4 count was similar for the groups, though the group without KS retained consistently higher CD4 cell counts after treatment initiation. In log-binomial models, patients with KS were more likely to fail to achieve a 50 cells/mm3 increase (RR 1.43; 95 CI: 0.99?.06) and 100 cells/mm3 increase (RR 1.20; 95 CI: 0.84?.73) in CD4 count at 6- and 12-months on treatment respectively (Table 3). Sensitivity analyses yielded no qualitative differences in results when attributing either achieving or failing to achieve the outcome to all missing CD4 count responses at 6 or 12 months on treatment (results not shown). Virologic response to ART was favourable among both groups (Table 3). By 6 months on treatment, only 11 of.

In the first year after initiation of ART (13.6/100 py in the

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