Se findings point to factors inherent to the tumor and/or inflammatorymicroenvironment determining whether NADPH oxidase is required or dispensable. There are several potential differences in experimental design that might account for NOX2-dependent and ndependent MDSC accumulation and function. One possibility relates to the use of p47phox2/2 mice in our studies versus gp91phox2/2 mice used by others [22,23]. Both p47phox and gp91phox are required components of NOX2 in both humans and in mice. Deficiency of either component leads to chronic granulomatous disease in humans [21] and to a consistent phenotype in engineered mice characterized by impaired host defense and excessive inflammatory responses to certain microbial products [28,31,35,43,44]. We found that p47phox2/2 MDSCs, although completely deficient in stimulated NOX2 activity, had T cell suppressive properties similar to WT MDSCs. Still, we acknowledge the potential for these phox constituents to have NOX2-independent signaling that could affect MDSC accumulation and function. In tumor-bearing mice, MDSCs secrete and are induced by the myeloid-associated S100 proteinsMyeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and NADPH OxidaseFigure 7. Peritoneal and BI-78D3 splenic granulocytic MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice suppress T cell proliferation independently of NADPH oxidase. Ly6G-enriched PECs and Eliglustat web splenocytes from MOSEC-bearing WT and p47phox2/2 mice (day 90) were co-cultured with splenocytes from non-tumor-bearing WT mice (E:T ratio: 1:1). A) Ly6G-enriched PECs completely suppressed anti-CD3/B7.1-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. PECs from 3 mice per genotype were evaluated. B) In Ly6G-enriched splenocytes, the majority of cells had a granulocytic morphology (arrows), and 86 of CD11b+ cells expressed granulocytic MDSC markers (Ly6G+Ly6Clow). C) Ly6G-enriched splenocytes from WT and p47phox2/2 mice modestly suppressed anti-CD3/B7.1-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. N = 3 mice per genotype were used in this experiment, and results are representative of 3 experiments. Comparison between genotypes: p = NS. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069631.g[7,22,45], which can prime NOX2 activity. Cheng et al. [22] reported that S100A9 expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells inhibited their differentiation to DCs and macrophages and induced generation of MDSCs via a gp91phox-dependent pathway. The lack of effect of NOX2 in MDSC accumulation in our studies indicates that, at least in the MOSEC model, MDSC generation in vivo is NOX2-independent. Other factors that could influence the requirement for NOX2 in MDSC differentiation relate to differences in tumor-derived products (e.g., secreted growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic products) and the local tumor microenvironment (e.g. peritoneal fluid versus subcutaneous). We believe that a strength of our approach is that we focused on MDSCs in the ascites of MOSEC-bearing mice ?which are likely to be the most relevant in modulating anti-tumor immunity in the local tumor microenvironment. Both tumor-derived factors and products produced by non-tumor cells in the microenvironment, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, 23977191 cytokines (e.g., IL-1b, IL-4, IL-6, interferon-c), S100A8/A9, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and ROIs can promote MDSC development and/or immunosuppressive activity [22,24,45?9]. Because MDSCs can be induced by multiple factors, it is possible that no single molecule is essential for generati.Se findings point to factors inherent to the tumor and/or inflammatorymicroenvironment determining whether NADPH oxidase is required or dispensable. There are several potential differences in experimental design that might account for NOX2-dependent and ndependent MDSC accumulation and function. One possibility relates to the use of p47phox2/2 mice in our studies versus gp91phox2/2 mice used by others [22,23]. Both p47phox and gp91phox are required components of NOX2 in both humans and in mice. Deficiency of either component leads to chronic granulomatous disease in humans [21] and to a consistent phenotype in engineered mice characterized by impaired host defense and excessive inflammatory responses to certain microbial products [28,31,35,43,44]. We found that p47phox2/2 MDSCs, although completely deficient in stimulated NOX2 activity, had T cell suppressive properties similar to WT MDSCs. Still, we acknowledge the potential for these phox constituents to have NOX2-independent signaling that could affect MDSC accumulation and function. In tumor-bearing mice, MDSCs secrete and are induced by the myeloid-associated S100 proteinsMyeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and NADPH OxidaseFigure 7. Peritoneal and splenic granulocytic MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice suppress T cell proliferation independently of NADPH oxidase. Ly6G-enriched PECs and splenocytes from MOSEC-bearing WT and p47phox2/2 mice (day 90) were co-cultured with splenocytes from non-tumor-bearing WT mice (E:T ratio: 1:1). A) Ly6G-enriched PECs completely suppressed anti-CD3/B7.1-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. PECs from 3 mice per genotype were evaluated. B) In Ly6G-enriched splenocytes, the majority of cells had a granulocytic morphology (arrows), and 86 of CD11b+ cells expressed granulocytic MDSC markers (Ly6G+Ly6Clow). C) Ly6G-enriched splenocytes from WT and p47phox2/2 mice modestly suppressed anti-CD3/B7.1-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. N = 3 mice per genotype were used in this experiment, and results are representative of 3 experiments. Comparison between genotypes: p = NS. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069631.g[7,22,45], which can prime NOX2 activity. Cheng et al. [22] reported that S100A9 expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells inhibited their differentiation to DCs and macrophages and induced generation of MDSCs via a gp91phox-dependent pathway. The lack of effect of NOX2 in MDSC accumulation in our studies indicates that, at least in the MOSEC model, MDSC generation in vivo is NOX2-independent. Other factors that could influence the requirement for NOX2 in MDSC differentiation relate to differences in tumor-derived products (e.g., secreted growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic products) and the local tumor microenvironment (e.g. peritoneal fluid versus subcutaneous). We believe that a strength of our approach is that we focused on MDSCs in the ascites of MOSEC-bearing mice ?which are likely to be the most relevant in modulating anti-tumor immunity in the local tumor microenvironment. Both tumor-derived factors and products produced by non-tumor cells in the microenvironment, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, 23977191 cytokines (e.g., IL-1b, IL-4, IL-6, interferon-c), S100A8/A9, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and ROIs can promote MDSC development and/or immunosuppressive activity [22,24,45?9]. Because MDSCs can be induced by multiple factors, it is possible that no single molecule is essential for generati.

Se findings point to factors inherent to the tumor and/or

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