The assays. Thus, patients in the MC and NE groups had more severe inflammation.Inflammatory phenotypes of AECOPD patientsWe 115103-85-0 supplier further stratified patients, according to the number of each type of inflammatory infiltrates in the sputum samples, and divided the patients into the NE (36 cases, 43 ), PA (32, 39 ), EO (10, 12 ), and MC (5, 6 ) groups, respectively (Table 2). There was significant difference in the number of sputum inflammatory infiltrates among these groups of patients. There were a significantly increased number of total inflammatory infiltrates, neutrophils, and eosinophils in the sputum samples from the NE, EO and MC groups of patients compared with that in the PA group of patients. Similarly, the number of eosinophils in the sputum samples from the EO and MC groups was significantly greater than that in the NE and PA groups of patients. In addition, the MC group of patients had significantly more numbers of macrophages in the sputum samples, but there was no significant difference in the number of lymphocytes, epithelial, and squamous cells in the sputum samples among these groups of patients. Interestingly, the MC and NE groups of patients had significantly greater numbers of blood leukocytes and neutrophils than that in the EO and PA groups of patients, and the MC and EO groups of patients had greater numbers of blood eosinophils than that in the NE and PA groups of patients. These data indicated that different groups of patients had varying numbers and types of inflammatory cells in the sputum samples.Therapeutic responses of different groups of AECOPD patientsFollowing treatment with antibiotics and methylprednisolone as well as other supportive medicines, we found that 65 out of 83 AECOPD patients recovered and that 18 patients failed the treatment and required continual antibiotic therapy. While most patients responded to standard therapies, there were significantly more patients in the NE group who required intensification of drug therapy (Table 2). Similarly, patients in the NE and MC groups spent significantly longer time for recovery and stay in the hospital than those in the EO and PA groups (Table 2). Apparently, the MC and NE groups of patients had more severe AECOPD and poorer responses to the standard therapies. We followed up 61 out of 83 AECOPD 23148522 patients for about 14 months (Table 4). Those patients with stable COPD were continually treated with maintenance therapies and remained in the same group, BIBS39 web except for two patients from the EO to PA, two patients from the PA to NE group, and 1 patient from the NE to PA group. The kappa statistic (95 confidence interval) was 0.87 (0.76?.98) (P,0.01), indicating substantial agreement in classifications between the visits. Analysis of the different groups of patients revealed that the BODE scores and GOLD stages in all groups of patients were reduced, but the BODE scores and GOLD stages in the NE and MC groups were significantly greater than that in the EO and PA groups of patients. Furthermore, all groups of patients had slightly improved lung function, and the percentages of post-FEV1 to predicted value in the NE and MC groups of patients were significantly less than that in the EO and PA groups of patients. Similarly, the amounts of sputum from the NE and MC groups were significantly greater than that in the EO and PA groups of patients. Laboratory tests indicated that all groups of patients had blood leukocytes, eosinophils and macrophages in normal ranges, althoug.The assays. Thus, patients in the MC and NE groups had more severe inflammation.Inflammatory phenotypes of AECOPD patientsWe further stratified patients, according to the number of each type of inflammatory infiltrates in the sputum samples, and divided the patients into the NE (36 cases, 43 ), PA (32, 39 ), EO (10, 12 ), and MC (5, 6 ) groups, respectively (Table 2). There was significant difference in the number of sputum inflammatory infiltrates among these groups of patients. There were a significantly increased number of total inflammatory infiltrates, neutrophils, and eosinophils in the sputum samples from the NE, EO and MC groups of patients compared with that in the PA group of patients. Similarly, the number of eosinophils in the sputum samples from the EO and MC groups was significantly greater than that in the NE and PA groups of patients. In addition, the MC group of patients had significantly more numbers of macrophages in the sputum samples, but there was no significant difference in the number of lymphocytes, epithelial, and squamous cells in the sputum samples among these groups of patients. Interestingly, the MC and NE groups of patients had significantly greater numbers of blood leukocytes and neutrophils than that in the EO and PA groups of patients, and the MC and EO groups of patients had greater numbers of blood eosinophils than that in the NE and PA groups of patients. These data indicated that different groups of patients had varying numbers and types of inflammatory cells in the sputum samples.Therapeutic responses of different groups of AECOPD patientsFollowing treatment with antibiotics and methylprednisolone as well as other supportive medicines, we found that 65 out of 83 AECOPD patients recovered and that 18 patients failed the treatment and required continual antibiotic therapy. While most patients responded to standard therapies, there were significantly more patients in the NE group who required intensification of drug therapy (Table 2). Similarly, patients in the NE and MC groups spent significantly longer time for recovery and stay in the hospital than those in the EO and PA groups (Table 2). Apparently, the MC and NE groups of patients had more severe AECOPD and poorer responses to the standard therapies. We followed up 61 out of 83 AECOPD 23148522 patients for about 14 months (Table 4). Those patients with stable COPD were continually treated with maintenance therapies and remained in the same group, except for two patients from the EO to PA, two patients from the PA to NE group, and 1 patient from the NE to PA group. The kappa statistic (95 confidence interval) was 0.87 (0.76?.98) (P,0.01), indicating substantial agreement in classifications between the visits. Analysis of the different groups of patients revealed that the BODE scores and GOLD stages in all groups of patients were reduced, but the BODE scores and GOLD stages in the NE and MC groups were significantly greater than that in the EO and PA groups of patients. Furthermore, all groups of patients had slightly improved lung function, and the percentages of post-FEV1 to predicted value in the NE and MC groups of patients were significantly less than that in the EO and PA groups of patients. Similarly, the amounts of sputum from the NE and MC groups were significantly greater than that in the EO and PA groups of patients. Laboratory tests indicated that all groups of patients had blood leukocytes, eosinophils and macrophages in normal ranges, althoug.

The assays. Thus, patients in the MC and NE groups had

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