Ce of PIP2, while the Hill coefficient showed little change (1.39). When the PIP2 concentration was raised to 5 mol , to give a POPC/POPS/PIP2/DOG mixture (70-x:25:5:x molar ratio), K0.5 decreased to 0.17 mol 1317923 DOG, although Vmax maintained a similar value of 1701.9 nmol Pi/min/mg and the Hill coefficient (0.47) indicated an apparent negative cooperativity. In another set of experiments, the concentration of PIP2 was varied in the presence and in the absence of DOG, keeping the Ca2+ concentration constant at 200 mM. Fig. 5 depicts the results obtained when the molar percentage in the membrane of PIP2 was increased in the absence of DOG, POPC/POPS/DOG (75x:25:x). As can be seen, the K0.5 was 0.39 (Table 4) and the Vmax 1816.2 nmol Pi/min/mg, with low positive cooperativity (n = 1.60). In the presence of 2 mol with a POPC/POPS/ PIP2/DOG membrane (73-x:25:x:2, molar ratio) K0.5 decreased to 0.11 mol PIP2. This is interesting since it clearly demonstrates that very low concentrations (well below physiological concentrations) are sufficient to significantly enhance the activity of PKCa.Figure 3. The Emixustat (hydrochloride) dependence of PKCa activity on the POPS molar percentage in the vesicles. The molar ratios of the lipid components of the vesicles used to 125-65-5 web activate the enzyme are shown. Ca2+ concentration was 200 mmol. SD calculated from 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069041.gIf PIP2 was present in the lipid mixture, but with no DOG, POPC/POPS/PIP2 (95-x:x:5), the initial activity, even in the absence of POPS, was already high, with a value of 1492 nmol Pi/ min/mg. Vmax reached a value of 2084.1 nmol Pi/min/mg and K0.5 was 13.94 mol of POPS. Thus the addition of PIP2 decreased K0.5 even if DOG was not present, and the activity was almost saturated and no apparent cooperativity was observed (n = 1.10). Fig. 3 also shows that when PIP2 was increased to 5 mol , to give a lipid mixture of POPC/POPS/PIP2/DOG (93-x:x:5:2 molar ratio), a very small increase in activity was already observed when POPS was increased since nearly maximum activity was observed in the absence of POPS (1760 nmol Pi/min/mg) and Vmax was 1895.8 nmol Pi/min/mg, with K0.5 of 8.20 mol POPS and a Hill coefficient of 1.50. Fig. 4 shows the activity studied as function of DOG concentration. When the membrane was composed of POPC/ POPS/DOG (75-x:25:x), K0.5 was 0.82 mol of DOG (Table 3). The activity was 666 nmol Pi/min/mg at 0 mol of DOG and rose to give a Vmax of 1307.9 nmol Pi/min/mg and a Hill coefficient of 1.59, indicating low positive cooperativity. When PIP2 was incorporated into this assay at just 1 mol in a POPC/ Table 2. Dependence of PKCa activation on POPS.Figure 4. The dependence of PKCa activity on the DOG molar percentage in the lipid vesicles. The molar ratios of the lipid components of the vesicles used to activate the enzyme are shown. Ca2+ concentration was 200 mmol. SD calculated from 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069041.gLipid mixture POPC:POPS:DOG (98-x:x:2) POPC:POPS:PIP2:DOG (97-x:x:1:2) POPC:POPS:PIP2 (95-x:x:5) POPC:POPS:PIP2:DOG (93-x:x:5:2)K0.15.1260.24 15.4060.71 13.9461.45 8.2060.Vmax (nmol Pi/min/mg)1260.2648.4 1586.2671.1 2084.0673.6 1895.86101.n13.1861.9 3.7160.77 1.1060.39 1.5060.K0.5, n and Vmax were obtained by nonlinear least square fit of the data in the equation described in the Methods Section. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069041.tPIP2 Activation of PKCaTable 3. Dependence of PKCa activation on DOG.Lipid mixture P.Ce of PIP2, while the Hill coefficient showed little change (1.39). When the PIP2 concentration was raised to 5 mol , to give a POPC/POPS/PIP2/DOG mixture (70-x:25:5:x molar ratio), K0.5 decreased to 0.17 mol 1317923 DOG, although Vmax maintained a similar value of 1701.9 nmol Pi/min/mg and the Hill coefficient (0.47) indicated an apparent negative cooperativity. In another set of experiments, the concentration of PIP2 was varied in the presence and in the absence of DOG, keeping the Ca2+ concentration constant at 200 mM. Fig. 5 depicts the results obtained when the molar percentage in the membrane of PIP2 was increased in the absence of DOG, POPC/POPS/DOG (75x:25:x). As can be seen, the K0.5 was 0.39 (Table 4) and the Vmax 1816.2 nmol Pi/min/mg, with low positive cooperativity (n = 1.60). In the presence of 2 mol with a POPC/POPS/ PIP2/DOG membrane (73-x:25:x:2, molar ratio) K0.5 decreased to 0.11 mol PIP2. This is interesting since it clearly demonstrates that very low concentrations (well below physiological concentrations) are sufficient to significantly enhance the activity of PKCa.Figure 3. The dependence of PKCa activity on the POPS molar percentage in the vesicles. The molar ratios of the lipid components of the vesicles used to activate the enzyme are shown. Ca2+ concentration was 200 mmol. SD calculated from 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069041.gIf PIP2 was present in the lipid mixture, but with no DOG, POPC/POPS/PIP2 (95-x:x:5), the initial activity, even in the absence of POPS, was already high, with a value of 1492 nmol Pi/ min/mg. Vmax reached a value of 2084.1 nmol Pi/min/mg and K0.5 was 13.94 mol of POPS. Thus the addition of PIP2 decreased K0.5 even if DOG was not present, and the activity was almost saturated and no apparent cooperativity was observed (n = 1.10). Fig. 3 also shows that when PIP2 was increased to 5 mol , to give a lipid mixture of POPC/POPS/PIP2/DOG (93-x:x:5:2 molar ratio), a very small increase in activity was already observed when POPS was increased since nearly maximum activity was observed in the absence of POPS (1760 nmol Pi/min/mg) and Vmax was 1895.8 nmol Pi/min/mg, with K0.5 of 8.20 mol POPS and a Hill coefficient of 1.50. Fig. 4 shows the activity studied as function of DOG concentration. When the membrane was composed of POPC/ POPS/DOG (75-x:25:x), K0.5 was 0.82 mol of DOG (Table 3). The activity was 666 nmol Pi/min/mg at 0 mol of DOG and rose to give a Vmax of 1307.9 nmol Pi/min/mg and a Hill coefficient of 1.59, indicating low positive cooperativity. When PIP2 was incorporated into this assay at just 1 mol in a POPC/ Table 2. Dependence of PKCa activation on POPS.Figure 4. The dependence of PKCa activity on the DOG molar percentage in the lipid vesicles. The molar ratios of the lipid components of the vesicles used to activate the enzyme are shown. Ca2+ concentration was 200 mmol. SD calculated from 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069041.gLipid mixture POPC:POPS:DOG (98-x:x:2) POPC:POPS:PIP2:DOG (97-x:x:1:2) POPC:POPS:PIP2 (95-x:x:5) POPC:POPS:PIP2:DOG (93-x:x:5:2)K0.15.1260.24 15.4060.71 13.9461.45 8.2060.Vmax (nmol Pi/min/mg)1260.2648.4 1586.2671.1 2084.0673.6 1895.86101.n13.1861.9 3.7160.77 1.1060.39 1.5060.K0.5, n and Vmax were obtained by nonlinear least square fit of the data in the equation described in the Methods Section. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069041.tPIP2 Activation of PKCaTable 3. Dependence of PKCa activation on DOG.Lipid mixture P.

Ce of PIP2, while the Hill coefficient showed little change (1.39). When

About author

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.