And soldiers, and the Cyp6a20 expression level in workers was significantly higher than soldiers (Figure 8D). Additionally, our behavioral observations found that aggressiveness of soldiers are the highest among all the castes of O. formosanus [12]. The previous studies showed that the Cyp6a20 expression levels might be negatively correlated with aggression [43?4]. Therefore, we suggest that Cyp6a20 may be a candidate gene that downregulates aggression in O. formosanus.above cut-off BLAST result. A total of 11,661 SSRs were predicted from the head transcriptome database. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to characterize the complete head transcriptome of a higher termite using Illumina sequencing. Our study has changed the current status of lacking genetic information for O. formosanus, and has provided comprehensive sequence resources available for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying caste differentiation and aggression in O. formosanus.Materials and SPDB site Methods Sample Collection and PreparationThe O. formosanus colonies were collected from the three forests (Shizi, Yujia and Luojia) in Wuhan city, China. The three forests are not privately-owned or protected in any way, and O. formosanus is not endangered or protected in any way. Thus, no specific permissions are required for these locations/activities in this study. Healthy workers were selected from these colonies. We used scalpel to separate heads from bodies of workers. Then, head samples were immediately stored in liquid nitrogen for further processing.ConclusionsWe have generated a comprehensive head transcriptome of O. formosanus using the Illumina sequencing. A single run produced more than 116,885 unigene sequences with 30,646 sequences with anRNA Isolation, cDNA Library Construction and Illumina SequencingFor Illumina sequencing, the total RNA of the head sample was extracted using TRIzol reagent (TaKaRa) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The mixed RNA extract was subjectedTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteFigure 6. Histogram presentation of purchase CAL120 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classification. Out of 30,427 nr hits, 9,009 sequences have a COG classification among the 25 categories. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gFigure 7. Distribution of similarity search results showed by Venn diagrams. (A) The number 23727046 of unique sequence-based annotations is the sum of unique best BLASTX hits from 1326631 the nr, Swiss-Prot and KEGG databases (E-value#1.0E-5), respectively. The overlap regions among the three circles contain the number of unigenes that share BLASTX similarity with respective databases. (B) Number of all annotated Odontotermes formosanus unigenes is figured out based on the summation of both unique sequence-based annotations and unique domain-based annotations. The circle “a” and “b” indicate the two subsets of O. formosanus unigenes with sequence-based annotations and domain-based annotations, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteTable 2. Frequency of EST-SSRs in the head transcriptome of Odontotermes formosanus.Motif length Repeat numbers 4 Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Toatl ??935 280 137 1,352 11.59 5 ?1,642 679 43 17 2,381 20.42 6 1,140 1,126 171 14 14 2,465 21.14 7 905 1,115 29 7 3 2,059 17.66 8 801 275 29 5 6 1,116 9.57 9 707 74 22 6 4 813 6.97 10 593 60 8 2 0 663 5.69 .10 479 242 59 28 4 812 6.Total4,625 4,534 1,932 38539.66 38.88 16.57 3.3 1.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.tto Solexa.And soldiers, and the Cyp6a20 expression level in workers was significantly higher than soldiers (Figure 8D). Additionally, our behavioral observations found that aggressiveness of soldiers are the highest among all the castes of O. formosanus [12]. The previous studies showed that the Cyp6a20 expression levels might be negatively correlated with aggression [43?4]. Therefore, we suggest that Cyp6a20 may be a candidate gene that downregulates aggression in O. formosanus.above cut-off BLAST result. A total of 11,661 SSRs were predicted from the head transcriptome database. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to characterize the complete head transcriptome of a higher termite using Illumina sequencing. Our study has changed the current status of lacking genetic information for O. formosanus, and has provided comprehensive sequence resources available for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying caste differentiation and aggression in O. formosanus.Materials and Methods Sample Collection and PreparationThe O. formosanus colonies were collected from the three forests (Shizi, Yujia and Luojia) in Wuhan city, China. The three forests are not privately-owned or protected in any way, and O. formosanus is not endangered or protected in any way. Thus, no specific permissions are required for these locations/activities in this study. Healthy workers were selected from these colonies. We used scalpel to separate heads from bodies of workers. Then, head samples were immediately stored in liquid nitrogen for further processing.ConclusionsWe have generated a comprehensive head transcriptome of O. formosanus using the Illumina sequencing. A single run produced more than 116,885 unigene sequences with 30,646 sequences with anRNA Isolation, cDNA Library Construction and Illumina SequencingFor Illumina sequencing, the total RNA of the head sample was extracted using TRIzol reagent (TaKaRa) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The mixed RNA extract was subjectedTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteFigure 6. Histogram presentation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classification. Out of 30,427 nr hits, 9,009 sequences have a COG classification among the 25 categories. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gFigure 7. Distribution of similarity search results showed by Venn diagrams. (A) The number 23727046 of unique sequence-based annotations is the sum of unique best BLASTX hits from 1326631 the nr, Swiss-Prot and KEGG databases (E-value#1.0E-5), respectively. The overlap regions among the three circles contain the number of unigenes that share BLASTX similarity with respective databases. (B) Number of all annotated Odontotermes formosanus unigenes is figured out based on the summation of both unique sequence-based annotations and unique domain-based annotations. The circle “a” and “b” indicate the two subsets of O. formosanus unigenes with sequence-based annotations and domain-based annotations, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteTable 2. Frequency of EST-SSRs in the head transcriptome of Odontotermes formosanus.Motif length Repeat numbers 4 Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Toatl ??935 280 137 1,352 11.59 5 ?1,642 679 43 17 2,381 20.42 6 1,140 1,126 171 14 14 2,465 21.14 7 905 1,115 29 7 3 2,059 17.66 8 801 275 29 5 6 1,116 9.57 9 707 74 22 6 4 813 6.97 10 593 60 8 2 0 663 5.69 .10 479 242 59 28 4 812 6.Total4,625 4,534 1,932 38539.66 38.88 16.57 3.3 1.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.tto Solexa.

And soldiers, and the Cyp6a20 expression level in workers was

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