Igin influenza A(H1N1) virus [1]. By the end of the 2009 calendar year, most MedChemExpress NT 157 countries around the world had experienced at least one epidemic waves of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 [2]. Although the WHO declared an end to the pandemic period on August 2, 2010, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (2009 H1N1) virus continued to circulate and became the most commonly detected virus in many northern hemisphere temperate countries in the winter season of 2010?011 [3?]. In some northern hemisphere countries, but not all, the impact of 2009 H1N1 in the 2010?011 season was greater than in the previous year, most notably in the United Kingdom (UK) where intensive care units were stressed bylarge numbers of patients PHCCC requiring ventilator support [6], [7],raising the possibility at the time of a change in the virulence of the virus. On 11 May 2009, the first imported human 2009 H1N1 patient was detected in mainland China, and subsequently the first wave of activity occurred from September 2009 to January 2010 during the expected influenza season. Subsequently, from February to December 2010, influenza B and A(H3N2) influenza viruses sequentially predominated in China, but from January through February 2011, 2009 H1N1 was once again the predominant virus in China [8]. The epidemiology of 2009 H1N1 during the pandemic period indicated that the majority of hospitalized and severely ill (intensive care unit [ICU] admission or death) patients occurred in older children and non-elderly adults [9?2], in contrast toHospitalized Cases of 2009 H1N1 after Pandemicseasonal influenza infection which affects predominantly children ,5 years and the elderly [13]. Similar to seasonal influenza virus infection, underlying risk factors for severe 2009 H1N1 disease include chronic medical conditions and pregnancy. In addition, obesity [10?1], [14?2], and indigenous/Aboriginal populations [16], [23] have been reported at increased risk of severe 2009 H1N1 disease. Since seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses undergo constant antigenic drift and may change in virulence, it was not possible to predict the impact of 2009 H1N1 in the post-pandemic period. Therefore, WHO recommended that countries maintain pandemic monitoring systems to detect changes in severity or characteristics of disease and therefore to allow for appropriate targeting of prevention and control and treatment measures such as vaccination, antiviral use, and non-pharmaceutical interventions. On 30 April 2009, nationwide surveillance for 2009 H1N1 was established through the notifiable infectious disease registry in China, and remained in effect after the pandemic was declared to be over. In this study, we describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients hospitalized in China with laboratory-confirmed 2009 H1N1 infection in the postpandemic period, and examine risk factors for ICU admission and death.To describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of hospitalized patients and risk factors for severe disease (ICU admission and death) in China during first winter season of postpandemic, we used data from hospitalized cases from November 2010 through May 2011. We compared the age distribution of hospitalized and fatal 2009 H1N1 cases during the post-pandemic period 1326631 with hospitalized and fatal cases during the pandemic period (September 2009 to 28 February 2010), which were reported through the same web-based system. To assess the risk of pregnancy and obesity with hospitalization we compared the pre.Igin influenza A(H1N1) virus [1]. By the end of the 2009 calendar year, most countries around the world had experienced at least one epidemic waves of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 [2]. Although the WHO declared an end to the pandemic period on August 2, 2010, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (2009 H1N1) virus continued to circulate and became the most commonly detected virus in many northern hemisphere temperate countries in the winter season of 2010?011 [3?]. In some northern hemisphere countries, but not all, the impact of 2009 H1N1 in the 2010?011 season was greater than in the previous year, most notably in the United Kingdom (UK) where intensive care units were stressed bylarge numbers of patients requiring ventilator support [6], [7],raising the possibility at the time of a change in the virulence of the virus. On 11 May 2009, the first imported human 2009 H1N1 patient was detected in mainland China, and subsequently the first wave of activity occurred from September 2009 to January 2010 during the expected influenza season. Subsequently, from February to December 2010, influenza B and A(H3N2) influenza viruses sequentially predominated in China, but from January through February 2011, 2009 H1N1 was once again the predominant virus in China [8]. The epidemiology of 2009 H1N1 during the pandemic period indicated that the majority of hospitalized and severely ill (intensive care unit [ICU] admission or death) patients occurred in older children and non-elderly adults [9?2], in contrast toHospitalized Cases of 2009 H1N1 after Pandemicseasonal influenza infection which affects predominantly children ,5 years and the elderly [13]. Similar to seasonal influenza virus infection, underlying risk factors for severe 2009 H1N1 disease include chronic medical conditions and pregnancy. In addition, obesity [10?1], [14?2], and indigenous/Aboriginal populations [16], [23] have been reported at increased risk of severe 2009 H1N1 disease. Since seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses undergo constant antigenic drift and may change in virulence, it was not possible to predict the impact of 2009 H1N1 in the post-pandemic period. Therefore, WHO recommended that countries maintain pandemic monitoring systems to detect changes in severity or characteristics of disease and therefore to allow for appropriate targeting of prevention and control and treatment measures such as vaccination, antiviral use, and non-pharmaceutical interventions. On 30 April 2009, nationwide surveillance for 2009 H1N1 was established through the notifiable infectious disease registry in China, and remained in effect after the pandemic was declared to be over. In this study, we describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients hospitalized in China with laboratory-confirmed 2009 H1N1 infection in the postpandemic period, and examine risk factors for ICU admission and death.To describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of hospitalized patients and risk factors for severe disease (ICU admission and death) in China during first winter season of postpandemic, we used data from hospitalized cases from November 2010 through May 2011. We compared the age distribution of hospitalized and fatal 2009 H1N1 cases during the post-pandemic period 1326631 with hospitalized and fatal cases during the pandemic period (September 2009 to 28 February 2010), which were reported through the same web-based system. To assess the risk of pregnancy and obesity with hospitalization we compared the pre.

Igin influenza A(H1N1) virus [1]. By the end of the

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