N51, AW-1 (ZNF174), and Number 18) [20]. PEG3 contains a SCAN domain near the N-terminus. The domain is a small, typically 80 to 90 residues, highly conserved structure. The human genome encodes 71 SCAN domains, 64 of which appear within functional genes [22]. The domain functions as a proteinprotein interaction motif, mediating self-interaction and binding other proteins [23?5]. The ability of a SCAN domain to selfassociate was first shown for ZNF174 using a mammalian twohybrid system and subsequently heterodimer formation was also noted [23]. Our current understanding suggests that the presence of SCAN domains in some proteins carrying Cys2-His2 Kruppel?type motifs allows them to interact in a combinatorial fashion to control gene In the lung.Materials and Methods SubjectsA total of 296 patients with expression [26]. Previously, two NMR and two crystal structures of SCAN domains have revealed the structural topology, which is constructed around five a-helices [26?8]. The SCAN domain forms a dimer with structural homology, appearing like a domain-swapped assembly, to the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the retroviralSCAN Domain of PEGcapsid protein [27], which is critical for capsid dimerization and viral assembly [29]. Here, we report the structure of the isolated SCAN homodimer from the human PEG3 protein (PEG3-SCAN). Comparisons with other SCAN structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the importance and contributions of residues involved in PEG3-SCAN dimerization are discussed, and provide insight into homo- and heterodimer assembly.Materials and Methods Protein Expression and PurificationThe gene encoding the SCAN domain of human PEG3 (amino acids 40?30; UniProt entry Q9GZU2) was purchased in the pUC57 vector (GenScript). The gene was subsequently sub-cloned into a modified pET15b vector (Title Loaded From File Novagen), designed to express the protein of interest with an N-terminal hexa-His tag and a Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease cleavage site. The sequence-verified clone (DNA Sequencing Unit, University of Dundee) was transformed into Escherichia coli Bl21 (DE3) Gold cells (Novagen) for expression. Cells were grown in Luria-Bertani media at 37uC to an OD600 of ,0.6, followed by induction with 0.2 mM IPTG. Cells were then grown overnight at 22uC and harvested by centrifugation at 3,500 g for 30 minutes at 4uC. The cell pellet was suspended in lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 20 mM imidazole) containing DNase I (0.1 mg), with a single protease inhibitor tablet (Roche) and lysed using the French Press (16,000 psi). The 23727046 extract was centrifuged at 37,500 g for 30 minutes at 4uC to pellet insoluble debris. The supernatant was loaded onto a 5 mL HisTrap HP column (GE Healthcare) and a linear imidazole concentration gradient from 20 mM to 1 M was applied. The PEG3-SCAN sample eluted from the column at approximately 200 mM imidazole. Fractions containing the recombinant protein were pooled and dialyzed in buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl), prior to addition of TEV protease to remove the His-tag. TEV protease was prepared inhouse by Keri Barrack (University of Dundee). 1 mg of TEV was used per 20 mg of protein in a cleavage reaction, which was performed at room temperature for 23977191 three hours. After TEV digestion, three non-native residues (Gly-His-Met) remained at the N-terminus of the product. The protein was passed through a second nickel-affinity column, which removed uncleaved protein and the His-tagged TEV protease. Gel filtration (GF, Superdex 75 16/60 column; GE Healthcare) was used as a final p.N51, AW-1 (ZNF174), and Number 18) [20]. PEG3 contains a SCAN domain near the N-terminus. The domain is a small, typically 80 to 90 residues, highly conserved structure. The human genome encodes 71 SCAN domains, 64 of which appear within functional genes [22]. The domain functions as a proteinprotein interaction motif, mediating self-interaction and binding other proteins [23?5]. The ability of a SCAN domain to selfassociate was first shown for ZNF174 using a mammalian twohybrid system and subsequently heterodimer formation was also noted [23]. Our current understanding suggests that the presence of SCAN domains in some proteins carrying Cys2-His2 Kruppel?type motifs allows them to interact in a combinatorial fashion to control gene expression [26]. Previously, two NMR and two crystal structures of SCAN domains have revealed the structural topology, which is constructed around five a-helices [26?8]. The SCAN domain forms a dimer with structural homology, appearing like a domain-swapped assembly, to the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the retroviralSCAN Domain of PEGcapsid protein [27], which is critical for capsid dimerization and viral assembly [29]. Here, we report the structure of the isolated SCAN homodimer from the human PEG3 protein (PEG3-SCAN). Comparisons with other SCAN structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the importance and contributions of residues involved in PEG3-SCAN dimerization are discussed, and provide insight into homo- and heterodimer assembly.Materials and Methods Protein Expression and PurificationThe gene encoding the SCAN domain of human PEG3 (amino acids 40?30; UniProt entry Q9GZU2) was purchased in the pUC57 vector (GenScript). The gene was subsequently sub-cloned into a modified pET15b vector (Novagen), designed to express the protein of interest with an N-terminal hexa-His tag and a Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease cleavage site. The sequence-verified clone (DNA Sequencing Unit, University of Dundee) was transformed into Escherichia coli Bl21 (DE3) Gold cells (Novagen) for expression. Cells were grown in Luria-Bertani media at 37uC to an OD600 of ,0.6, followed by induction with 0.2 mM IPTG. Cells were then grown overnight at 22uC and harvested by centrifugation at 3,500 g for 30 minutes at 4uC. The cell pellet was suspended in lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 20 mM imidazole) containing DNase I (0.1 mg), with a single protease inhibitor tablet (Roche) and lysed using the French Press (16,000 psi). The 23727046 extract was centrifuged at 37,500 g for 30 minutes at 4uC to pellet insoluble debris. The supernatant was loaded onto a 5 mL HisTrap HP column (GE Healthcare) and a linear imidazole concentration gradient from 20 mM to 1 M was applied. The PEG3-SCAN sample eluted from the column at approximately 200 mM imidazole. Fractions containing the recombinant protein were pooled and dialyzed in buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl), prior to addition of TEV protease to remove the His-tag. TEV protease was prepared inhouse by Keri Barrack (University of Dundee). 1 mg of TEV was used per 20 mg of protein in a cleavage reaction, which was performed at room temperature for 23977191 three hours. After TEV digestion, three non-native residues (Gly-His-Met) remained at the N-terminus of the product. The protein was passed through a second nickel-affinity column, which removed uncleaved protein and the His-tagged TEV protease. Gel filtration (GF, Superdex 75 16/60 column; GE Healthcare) was used as a final p.

N51, AW-1 (ZNF174), and Number 18) [20]. PEG3 contains a SCAN domain near

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