S to perform such sequencing routinely, thereby enhancing the quality, temporal and geographical resolution of the local influenza surveillance dataavailable, to keep vaccine manufacturers and public health teams informed [40]. Towards this goal, the simplified sequencing protocol described here has been shown to be effective in obtaining full influenza A/H3N2 genomes at a reasonable price with equipment already available in many diagnostic and research laboratories, suggesting potential use of a similar strategy for studying human influenza A/H1N1pdm viruses.Methods Ethics StatementAll research studies involving the use of these clinical samples were reviewed and approved by the local institutional ethics review board (National Healthcare Group: B/09/360 and E/09/ 341).Influenza A/H3N2 Virus Genome SequencingViral RNA ExtractionViral RNAs were extracted from 200 mL of clinical or cultured samples with either the Qiagen EZ1 Virus mini kit v2.0 or the QIAsymphony Virus/Bacteria mini kit, using their respective proprietary Bio Robot EZ1 and QIAsymphony automated platforms (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All extracted RNAs were eluted into a final volume of 60 mL of elution buffer.Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain ReactionRT-PCRs were performed with a Superscript III one-step RTPCR 16985061 system with Platinum Taq high-fidelity polymerase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Nineteen RT-PCRs were set up for whole genome amplification. All RT-PCRs were prepared manually in 10 mL of reaction volume, consisting of 5 mL of 26 Reaction Mix, equimolar Title Loaded From File amounts of forward and reverse primers (0.3 mmol/L each), 0.25 mL of Title Loaded From File enzyme mix, and 2.5 mL of extracted RNA sample. The remaining volume was topped up with RNase-free water. All RT-PCRs were performed using either the ABI 9700 thermal cycler (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA) or the Biometra T3000 thermocycler (Biometra GmbH, Goettingen, Germany). The cycling conditions were 30 min at 42uC (RT); 2.5 min at 95uC (inactivation of RT enzyme and activation of Taq enzyme); 5 cycles of 30 s at 95uC (denaturation), 30 s at 47uC (annealing), and 1.25 min at 68uC (extension); 45 cycles of 30 s at 95uC, 30 s at 23148522 the respective second annealing temperature (Ta), and 1.25 min at 68uC; followed by a hold for 10 min at 68uC (final extension). The second Ta for each RT-PCR is summarized in Table 2.amplicons. One microliter of 4 DMSO was added into the sequencing reaction together with primer NS373R23 [29]. Largescale sequencing reactions were carried out on a 96-well plate and purified directly using the BigDyeXTerminator purification kit (Applied Biosystems). Individual sequencing reactions were performed in PCR tubes and purified using the DyeEx 2.0 spin kit (Qiagen). Purified sequencing products were analyzed on the ABI 31306l genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems) using the BDx_stdSeq50_POP7_1 run module. Sequencing peak heights were adjusted with the sample injection time ranging from 3? seconds.Contig AssemblyAll sequences were assembled and verified using the ATF software, version 1.0.2.41 (Connexio Genomics, Perth, Australia), using the reference sequence influenza A/Nanjing/1/2009(H3N2) for all segments (GenBank accession: GU907114-GU907117 and GU907119-GU907121), except for the PB1 segment which used influenza A/Sendai-H/F193/2007(H3N2) (GenBank accession: AB441948) as the reference sequence. The primer sequences were subtracted from the data during contig assembly. The multiple A’s.S to perform such sequencing routinely, thereby enhancing the quality, temporal and geographical resolution of the local influenza surveillance dataavailable, to keep vaccine manufacturers and public health teams informed [40]. Towards this goal, the simplified sequencing protocol described here has been shown to be effective in obtaining full influenza A/H3N2 genomes at a reasonable price with equipment already available in many diagnostic and research laboratories, suggesting potential use of a similar strategy for studying human influenza A/H1N1pdm viruses.Methods Ethics StatementAll research studies involving the use of these clinical samples were reviewed and approved by the local institutional ethics review board (National Healthcare Group: B/09/360 and E/09/ 341).Influenza A/H3N2 Virus Genome SequencingViral RNA ExtractionViral RNAs were extracted from 200 mL of clinical or cultured samples with either the Qiagen EZ1 Virus mini kit v2.0 or the QIAsymphony Virus/Bacteria mini kit, using their respective proprietary Bio Robot EZ1 and QIAsymphony automated platforms (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All extracted RNAs were eluted into a final volume of 60 mL of elution buffer.Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain ReactionRT-PCRs were performed with a Superscript III one-step RTPCR 16985061 system with Platinum Taq high-fidelity polymerase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Nineteen RT-PCRs were set up for whole genome amplification. All RT-PCRs were prepared manually in 10 mL of reaction volume, consisting of 5 mL of 26 Reaction Mix, equimolar amounts of forward and reverse primers (0.3 mmol/L each), 0.25 mL of enzyme mix, and 2.5 mL of extracted RNA sample. The remaining volume was topped up with RNase-free water. All RT-PCRs were performed using either the ABI 9700 thermal cycler (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA) or the Biometra T3000 thermocycler (Biometra GmbH, Goettingen, Germany). The cycling conditions were 30 min at 42uC (RT); 2.5 min at 95uC (inactivation of RT enzyme and activation of Taq enzyme); 5 cycles of 30 s at 95uC (denaturation), 30 s at 47uC (annealing), and 1.25 min at 68uC (extension); 45 cycles of 30 s at 95uC, 30 s at 23148522 the respective second annealing temperature (Ta), and 1.25 min at 68uC; followed by a hold for 10 min at 68uC (final extension). The second Ta for each RT-PCR is summarized in Table 2.amplicons. One microliter of 4 DMSO was added into the sequencing reaction together with primer NS373R23 [29]. Largescale sequencing reactions were carried out on a 96-well plate and purified directly using the BigDyeXTerminator purification kit (Applied Biosystems). Individual sequencing reactions were performed in PCR tubes and purified using the DyeEx 2.0 spin kit (Qiagen). Purified sequencing products were analyzed on the ABI 31306l genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems) using the BDx_stdSeq50_POP7_1 run module. Sequencing peak heights were adjusted with the sample injection time ranging from 3? seconds.Contig AssemblyAll sequences were assembled and verified using the ATF software, version 1.0.2.41 (Connexio Genomics, Perth, Australia), using the reference sequence influenza A/Nanjing/1/2009(H3N2) for all segments (GenBank accession: GU907114-GU907117 and GU907119-GU907121), except for the PB1 segment which used influenza A/Sendai-H/F193/2007(H3N2) (GenBank accession: AB441948) as the reference sequence. The primer sequences were subtracted from the data during contig assembly. The multiple A’s.

S to perform such sequencing routinely, thereby enhancing the quality, temporal

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