He supernatant play an important role for the pathogenicity of the bacteria. Previous literature showed that the b-hemolysin contributes to the stimulation of IL-8 release [8] [16]. Because a high IL-8 release from THP-1 macrophages was also observed following stimulation with strain BSU 98 as well as the nonThe GBS ?Hemolysin and Intracellular SurvivalFigure 3. Effect of Cytochalasin D on invasion capacity of S. agalactiae in macrophages. Cytochalasin D treated THP-1 macrophages were infected with hemolytic (BSU 98) and nonhemolytic (BSU 453) bacteria for 90 min followed by adding antibiotics for 1 h 15900046 to kill extracellular bacteria. Infected THP-1 macrophages without Cytochalasin D treatment served as positive control. Data shown are the mean 6 SD of six independent experiments. Data is considered significant for p values ,0.05 (*) and highly significant for p values ,0.01 (**). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060160.ghemolytic strain BSU 453 (Fig. 6A), we hypothesize that the presence of b-hemolysin in BSU 98 may not be the sole mediator for IL-8 release, suggesting the involvement of other bacterial factors that could trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The bacterial cell wall components of gram positive bacteria are a major proinflammatory stimulus and trigger the innate immune system similarly to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram negative bacteria [15] [18]. To investigate the role of cell wall, THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with S. agalactiae cell wall preparations from hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains. A dose and time dependency was observed in the buy KS 176 production of IL-8 following stimulation with 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mg/ml of cell wall preparations. Maximum stimulation was observed for 1 mg of LPS that served as a positive control in the assay. As b-hemolysin activity is lost during the cell wall isolation method, the resultant cell wall fragments from BSU 6 and BSU 281 show a similar response towards the production of IL-8 as shown in Fig. 7A and 7B.DiscussionSevere invasive S. agalactiae infections are not only a major cause of infections in newborns but also in nonpregnant adults. Bacterial invasion and disease pathogenesis is a complex process that is achieved through numerous virulence factors. The S. agalactiae bhemolysin is considered as one of the most important virulence factors in this context. Invasive S. agalactiae infections are almost exclusively caused by b-hemolytic strains. However, the role of the S. agalactiae b-hemolysin in the molecular interaction with host cells is not completely understood.MedChemExpress IQ1 Interestingly, the cov (or csr) system as a major regulator of S. agalactiae virulence genes suppresses b-hemolysin expression [19] [9]. A recent study by Sendi et al. found that a strain carrying a cov mutation resulting in a high hemolytic S. agalactiae variant with low capsule expression showed low intracellular survival in human neutrophils in contrast to the low hemolytic variant with high capsule expression [8]. To elucidate whether the observed difference is due to b-hemolysin or capsule expression, we used a serotype Ia strain and its isogenic nonhemolytic mutant to investigate the potential factors responsible for the different survival in eukaryotic host cells. The b-hemolytic S. agalactiae wild type strain was found in lower numbers in the intracellular compartment of THP-1 macrophages in comparison to the nonhemolytic mutant strain. With increasing incubation time (from 0.75 to 1.5 h), the number of reco.He supernatant play an important role for the pathogenicity of the bacteria. Previous literature showed that the b-hemolysin contributes to the stimulation of IL-8 release [8] [16]. Because a high IL-8 release from THP-1 macrophages was also observed following stimulation with strain BSU 98 as well as the nonThe GBS ?Hemolysin and Intracellular SurvivalFigure 3. Effect of Cytochalasin D on invasion capacity of S. agalactiae in macrophages. Cytochalasin D treated THP-1 macrophages were infected with hemolytic (BSU 98) and nonhemolytic (BSU 453) bacteria for 90 min followed by adding antibiotics for 1 h 15900046 to kill extracellular bacteria. Infected THP-1 macrophages without Cytochalasin D treatment served as positive control. Data shown are the mean 6 SD of six independent experiments. Data is considered significant for p values ,0.05 (*) and highly significant for p values ,0.01 (**). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060160.ghemolytic strain BSU 453 (Fig. 6A), we hypothesize that the presence of b-hemolysin in BSU 98 may not be the sole mediator for IL-8 release, suggesting the involvement of other bacterial factors that could trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The bacterial cell wall components of gram positive bacteria are a major proinflammatory stimulus and trigger the innate immune system similarly to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram negative bacteria [15] [18]. To investigate the role of cell wall, THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with S. agalactiae cell wall preparations from hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains. A dose and time dependency was observed in the production of IL-8 following stimulation with 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mg/ml of cell wall preparations. Maximum stimulation was observed for 1 mg of LPS that served as a positive control in the assay. As b-hemolysin activity is lost during the cell wall isolation method, the resultant cell wall fragments from BSU 6 and BSU 281 show a similar response towards the production of IL-8 as shown in Fig. 7A and 7B.DiscussionSevere invasive S. agalactiae infections are not only a major cause of infections in newborns but also in nonpregnant adults. Bacterial invasion and disease pathogenesis is a complex process that is achieved through numerous virulence factors. The S. agalactiae bhemolysin is considered as one of the most important virulence factors in this context. Invasive S. agalactiae infections are almost exclusively caused by b-hemolytic strains. However, the role of the S. agalactiae b-hemolysin in the molecular interaction with host cells is not completely understood.Interestingly, the cov (or csr) system as a major regulator of S. agalactiae virulence genes suppresses b-hemolysin expression [19] [9]. A recent study by Sendi et al. found that a strain carrying a cov mutation resulting in a high hemolytic S. agalactiae variant with low capsule expression showed low intracellular survival in human neutrophils in contrast to the low hemolytic variant with high capsule expression [8]. To elucidate whether the observed difference is due to b-hemolysin or capsule expression, we used a serotype Ia strain and its isogenic nonhemolytic mutant to investigate the potential factors responsible for the different survival in eukaryotic host cells. The b-hemolytic S. agalactiae wild type strain was found in lower numbers in the intracellular compartment of THP-1 macrophages in comparison to the nonhemolytic mutant strain. With increasing incubation time (from 0.75 to 1.5 h), the number of reco.

He supernatant play an important role for the pathogenicity of the

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