Resistance by the forced-oscillation technique, mice were exposed to increasing doses of methacholine (0.1?0 mg/ml), each of which was administered over 10 seconds by nebulization. Methacholine responsiveness in unsensitized, uninfected BALB/c mice was similar to our previous study [18], and did not differ from alum-sensitized controls (data not shown). As in other studies [11,20,25,26], significant airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was present in OVA-sensitized, uninfected animals (Fig. 3A). In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was absent in OVA-sensitized mice following infection with RSV at both 2 and 8 d.p.i. Indeed, methacholine responsiveness was no different from that of unsensitized, RSVinfected animals at these same Lecirelin timepoints. Importantly, methacholine hyperresponsiveness was present in mice “infected” for 2 or 8 days with RSV which was antigenically-intact but replicationincompetent as a result of exposure to UV light (Fig. 3B) [16]. This latter finding indicates that viral replication is necessary for reversal of methacholine hyperresponsiveness in OVA-sensitized mice, and that this phenomenon does not result solely from administration of large amounts of viral antigen [27]. Moreover, itRSV reverses AHR in OVA-Sensitized MiceFigure 2. RSV infection reduces bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in OVA-sensitized mice. Effect of OVA sensitization on (A) Alveolar macrophage (AM), eosinophil (EO) and small lymphocyte (SL) counts in uninfected mice (OVA/UNINF; n = 8) and unsensitized, uninfected controls (UNSENS/UNINF; n = 8); (B) Total cell counts in OVA-sensitized mice after mock infection for 2 days (M2; n = 5), 4 days (M4; n = 4), or 8 days (M8; n = 8), and infection with RSV (106 pfu/mouse) for 2 days (n = 16), 18055761 4 days (n = 10), or 8 days (n = 6); (C) AM, EO, and SL counts after mock infection for 2, 4, or 8 days and infection with RSV for 2? days; and (D) Neutrophil (PMN) counts after infection with RSV for 2? days. No PMNs were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from uninfected or mock-infected mice at any timepoint (not shown). *P,0.05, **P,0.005, ***P,0.001. N.D.: None detected. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046660.gdemonstrates that reversal of methacholine hyperresponsiveness following RSV infection cannot be attributed to any contaminating mediators from the HEp-2 cells in which the virus is cultured, since these would remain functional following UV-crosslinking of viral RNA [16,18,28].RSV infection reverses hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in OVA-sensitized mice via a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway. McGraw et al. have reported thatunsensitized, uninfected buy LED 209 b2-adrenergic receptor-knockout FVB mice are hyporesponsive to methacholine [22,29]. They also showed that pertussis toxin enhanced bronchoconstriction to methacholine, indicating that hyporesponsiveness in their model is mediated by G protein-inhibitory a subunit (Gai). Similarly, we found that treatment of OVA-sensitized, RSV-infected mice with pertussis toxin (100 mg/kg in 100 ml saline, i.p.), but not the vehicle control (100 ml saline only, i.p.), 18 hours prior to lung function analysis increased responsiveness to methacholine at 2 d.p.i. (Fig. 4). However, pertussis toxin pretreatment was insufficient to induce the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in untreated, OVA-sensitized, uninfected mice.Keratinocyte cytokine released in response to RSV infection reverses hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in OVA-sensitized mic.Resistance by the forced-oscillation technique, mice were exposed to increasing doses of methacholine (0.1?0 mg/ml), each of which was administered over 10 seconds by nebulization. Methacholine responsiveness in unsensitized, uninfected BALB/c mice was similar to our previous study [18], and did not differ from alum-sensitized controls (data not shown). As in other studies [11,20,25,26], significant airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was present in OVA-sensitized, uninfected animals (Fig. 3A). In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was absent in OVA-sensitized mice following infection with RSV at both 2 and 8 d.p.i. Indeed, methacholine responsiveness was no different from that of unsensitized, RSVinfected animals at these same timepoints. Importantly, methacholine hyperresponsiveness was present in mice “infected” for 2 or 8 days with RSV which was antigenically-intact but replicationincompetent as a result of exposure to UV light (Fig. 3B) [16]. This latter finding indicates that viral replication is necessary for reversal of methacholine hyperresponsiveness in OVA-sensitized mice, and that this phenomenon does not result solely from administration of large amounts of viral antigen [27]. Moreover, itRSV reverses AHR in OVA-Sensitized MiceFigure 2. RSV infection reduces bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in OVA-sensitized mice. Effect of OVA sensitization on (A) Alveolar macrophage (AM), eosinophil (EO) and small lymphocyte (SL) counts in uninfected mice (OVA/UNINF; n = 8) and unsensitized, uninfected controls (UNSENS/UNINF; n = 8); (B) Total cell counts in OVA-sensitized mice after mock infection for 2 days (M2; n = 5), 4 days (M4; n = 4), or 8 days (M8; n = 8), and infection with RSV (106 pfu/mouse) for 2 days (n = 16), 18055761 4 days (n = 10), or 8 days (n = 6); (C) AM, EO, and SL counts after mock infection for 2, 4, or 8 days and infection with RSV for 2? days; and (D) Neutrophil (PMN) counts after infection with RSV for 2? days. No PMNs were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from uninfected or mock-infected mice at any timepoint (not shown). *P,0.05, **P,0.005, ***P,0.001. N.D.: None detected. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046660.gdemonstrates that reversal of methacholine hyperresponsiveness following RSV infection cannot be attributed to any contaminating mediators from the HEp-2 cells in which the virus is cultured, since these would remain functional following UV-crosslinking of viral RNA [16,18,28].RSV infection reverses hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in OVA-sensitized mice via a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway. McGraw et al. have reported thatunsensitized, uninfected b2-adrenergic receptor-knockout FVB mice are hyporesponsive to methacholine [22,29]. They also showed that pertussis toxin enhanced bronchoconstriction to methacholine, indicating that hyporesponsiveness in their model is mediated by G protein-inhibitory a subunit (Gai). Similarly, we found that treatment of OVA-sensitized, RSV-infected mice with pertussis toxin (100 mg/kg in 100 ml saline, i.p.), but not the vehicle control (100 ml saline only, i.p.), 18 hours prior to lung function analysis increased responsiveness to methacholine at 2 d.p.i. (Fig. 4). However, pertussis toxin pretreatment was insufficient to induce the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in untreated, OVA-sensitized, uninfected mice.Keratinocyte cytokine released in response to RSV infection reverses hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in OVA-sensitized mic.

Resistance by the forced-oscillation technique, mice were exposed to increasing doses

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