NT-157 web E-based vectors are routinely used as “nonfunctional” controls when experimentally manipulating muscle, it is important to ascertain whether commonly used reporter transgenes can elicit effects of their own when expressed in skeletal muscle. To answer this question, we examined murine hind limb muscles following administration of pseudotyope-6 rAAV vectors carrying expression cassettes encoding for hPLAP and GFP reporter genes. We report herein that local administration of rAAV6:hPLAP vector to skeletal muscle causes dose- and timedependent pro-inflammatory macrophage recruitment as well as significant skeletal muscle damage. These effects were independent of promoter type, as vectors carrying expression cassettes featuring constitutive CMV and muscle-specific CK6 promoters drove a similar cellular response when matched for total genome numbers. The observed deleterious effects were related to the level of expression of the specific transgene, as we observed that an increased dose of rAAV6 vectors carrying a GFP expression cassette was required to produce a similar inflammatory/ degenerative response. Moreover, at all vector doses tested, rAAV vectors carrying a gene-less expression cassette were well tolerated. We conclude that studies employing reporter gene constructs as experimental controls in the study of mammalian skeletal muscle should consider the impact of the reporter gene upon target cell function before interpreting the effects of an experimental intervention in comparison to a muscle transduced with a reporter gene.Cloning and Production of Recombinant Adenoassociated Viral VectorscDNA constructs encoding human PLAP, humanized Renilla GFP or human follistatin-288 were cloned into an AAV expression 1317923 plasmid consisting of a CMV or CK6 promoter/enhancer [19,20] and SV40 poly-A region flanked by AAV2 terminal repeats [21], using standard cloning techniques. Transfection of these plasmids with the pDGM6 packaging plasmid into HEK293 cells generated type-6 pseudotyped viral vectors that were harvested and purified as described previously [21]. Briefly, HEK293 cells suspended in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM, Life Technologies) supplemented with 10 fetal bovine serum (Hyclone) and 1 penicillin/streptomycin (Life Technologies) were plated at a density of 3.223.86106 cells on sterile 10 cm culture dishes (Corning), 8216 h prior to transfection with 10 mg of an AAV:expression cassette plasmid and 20 mg of the packaging/ helper plasmid pDGM6, by means of the calcium phosphate precipitate method to generate pseudotype 6 vectors [21]. At 12 hours after transfection, the cells commenced incubation in serumfree media, and at 72 hours after transfection, the media and cells were collected and homogenized through a microfluidizer (Microfluidics Inc) prior to 0.22 mm clarification (Millipore). The vectors were recovered from the clarified lysate by affinity chromatography over a heparin affinity column (HiTrap, GE Life Sciences) and ultracentrifuged overnight prior to re-suspension in sterile physiological Ringer’s solution. The purified vector preparations were quantified with a customized sequence-specific quantitative PCR-based reaction (Applied Biosystems), consisting of a forward primer (ttttcactgcattctagttgtggtt), reverse primer (catgctctagtcgaggtcgagat) and probe (6FAM-actcatcaatgtatcttatcatg-MGBNFQ).Experimental Animals and Surgical purchase P7C3 ProcedureFor local vector delivery, ,8 wk old male C57BL/6 mice were deeply anesthetize.E-based vectors are routinely used as “nonfunctional” controls when experimentally manipulating muscle, it is important to ascertain whether commonly used reporter transgenes can elicit effects of their own when expressed in skeletal muscle. To answer this question, we examined murine hind limb muscles following administration of pseudotyope-6 rAAV vectors carrying expression cassettes encoding for hPLAP and GFP reporter genes. We report herein that local administration of rAAV6:hPLAP vector to skeletal muscle causes dose- and timedependent pro-inflammatory macrophage recruitment as well as significant skeletal muscle damage. These effects were independent of promoter type, as vectors carrying expression cassettes featuring constitutive CMV and muscle-specific CK6 promoters drove a similar cellular response when matched for total genome numbers. The observed deleterious effects were related to the level of expression of the specific transgene, as we observed that an increased dose of rAAV6 vectors carrying a GFP expression cassette was required to produce a similar inflammatory/ degenerative response. Moreover, at all vector doses tested, rAAV vectors carrying a gene-less expression cassette were well tolerated. We conclude that studies employing reporter gene constructs as experimental controls in the study of mammalian skeletal muscle should consider the impact of the reporter gene upon target cell function before interpreting the effects of an experimental intervention in comparison to a muscle transduced with a reporter gene.Cloning and Production of Recombinant Adenoassociated Viral VectorscDNA constructs encoding human PLAP, humanized Renilla GFP or human follistatin-288 were cloned into an AAV expression 1317923 plasmid consisting of a CMV or CK6 promoter/enhancer [19,20] and SV40 poly-A region flanked by AAV2 terminal repeats [21], using standard cloning techniques. Transfection of these plasmids with the pDGM6 packaging plasmid into HEK293 cells generated type-6 pseudotyped viral vectors that were harvested and purified as described previously [21]. Briefly, HEK293 cells suspended in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM, Life Technologies) supplemented with 10 fetal bovine serum (Hyclone) and 1 penicillin/streptomycin (Life Technologies) were plated at a density of 3.223.86106 cells on sterile 10 cm culture dishes (Corning), 8216 h prior to transfection with 10 mg of an AAV:expression cassette plasmid and 20 mg of the packaging/ helper plasmid pDGM6, by means of the calcium phosphate precipitate method to generate pseudotype 6 vectors [21]. At 12 hours after transfection, the cells commenced incubation in serumfree media, and at 72 hours after transfection, the media and cells were collected and homogenized through a microfluidizer (Microfluidics Inc) prior to 0.22 mm clarification (Millipore). The vectors were recovered from the clarified lysate by affinity chromatography over a heparin affinity column (HiTrap, GE Life Sciences) and ultracentrifuged overnight prior to re-suspension in sterile physiological Ringer’s solution. The purified vector preparations were quantified with a customized sequence-specific quantitative PCR-based reaction (Applied Biosystems), consisting of a forward primer (ttttcactgcattctagttgtggtt), reverse primer (catgctctagtcgaggtcgagat) and probe (6FAM-actcatcaatgtatcttatcatg-MGBNFQ).Experimental Animals and Surgical ProcedureFor local vector delivery, ,8 wk old male C57BL/6 mice were deeply anesthetize.

E-based vectors are routinely used as “nonfunctional” controls when experimentally manipulating

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