Metabolic syndrome (R2 = 0.433) (Constant) Age Diastolic blood pressure LDL-cholesterol 20.268 0.011 0.004 0.001 0.268 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.324 0.000 0.122 0.order A 196 Independent variables for mean IMT: age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLcholesterol, fasting glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin and progranulin levels. SE, standard error; R2, coefficient of determination. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055744.tinteraction with TNF-a [5]. However, not all the actions of progranulin on inflammatory cells are inhibitory, and the interactions between progranulin and inflammation were reported to be more complicated in some previous reports. During the inflammatory process, progranulin is digested into smaller peptides, called granulins, that are pro-inflammatory and neutralize the anti-inflammatory effect of intact progranulin [6]. Moreover, Okura et al. reported that progranulin increased the expression of TNF-a and IL-1b in human monocyte-derived macrophages [20]. In a cutaneous wound, progranulin promoted the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages, suggesting the chemotactic activity of progranulin for inflammatory cells [21]. Furthermore, we previously reported that elevated progranulin serum concentrations were positively associated with omental adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes, suggesting progranulin as a chemoattractant molecule [8]. These results support the hypothesis that progranulin may play dual roles in the inflammatory process and may exert anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory functions depending on the target tissue. In this study, which included subjects without diabetes, circulating progranulin 15481974 levels had a significant positive correlation with serum hsCRP 11967625 and IL-6 levels, reflecting chronic subclinical inflammation. Very recently, progranulin was identified as a novel adipokine that mediates high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. In that study, insulin resistance induced by progranulin was significantly improved by a neutralizing antibody against IL-6, implicating IL-6 as a mediator of progranulininduced insulin resistance in adipocytes [7]. Interestingly, multiple regression analysis in this study showed that serum IL-6 level was an independent determining factor for circulating progranulin levels, even after adjusting for other confounding risk factors. Our study demonstrates that serum progranulin is an independent maker for subclinical atherosclerosis, represented as CIMT. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process resulting from the interaction of modified lipoprotein, macrophages, and the normal cellular elements of the arterial wall [22]. Growing evidence suggests that various adipokines are directly involved inthe process of atherosclerosis [23]. An immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endoatherectomy specimens indicated that intimal vascular order BIBS39 smooth muscle cells and some macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaque express progranulin [24]. Progranulin in the plaque would be cleaved into granulins, which increase IL-8 levels and drive the migration of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall [24]. A recent clinical study reported that serum progranulin levels were significantly higher in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is now regarded as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and were associated with adverse lipid profiles [25]. In the present study, an ind.Metabolic syndrome (R2 = 0.433) (Constant) Age Diastolic blood pressure LDL-cholesterol 20.268 0.011 0.004 0.001 0.268 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.324 0.000 0.122 0.Independent variables for mean IMT: age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLcholesterol, fasting glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin and progranulin levels. SE, standard error; R2, coefficient of determination. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055744.tinteraction with TNF-a [5]. However, not all the actions of progranulin on inflammatory cells are inhibitory, and the interactions between progranulin and inflammation were reported to be more complicated in some previous reports. During the inflammatory process, progranulin is digested into smaller peptides, called granulins, that are pro-inflammatory and neutralize the anti-inflammatory effect of intact progranulin [6]. Moreover, Okura et al. reported that progranulin increased the expression of TNF-a and IL-1b in human monocyte-derived macrophages [20]. In a cutaneous wound, progranulin promoted the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages, suggesting the chemotactic activity of progranulin for inflammatory cells [21]. Furthermore, we previously reported that elevated progranulin serum concentrations were positively associated with omental adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes, suggesting progranulin as a chemoattractant molecule [8]. These results support the hypothesis that progranulin may play dual roles in the inflammatory process and may exert anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory functions depending on the target tissue. In this study, which included subjects without diabetes, circulating progranulin 15481974 levels had a significant positive correlation with serum hsCRP 11967625 and IL-6 levels, reflecting chronic subclinical inflammation. Very recently, progranulin was identified as a novel adipokine that mediates high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. In that study, insulin resistance induced by progranulin was significantly improved by a neutralizing antibody against IL-6, implicating IL-6 as a mediator of progranulininduced insulin resistance in adipocytes [7]. Interestingly, multiple regression analysis in this study showed that serum IL-6 level was an independent determining factor for circulating progranulin levels, even after adjusting for other confounding risk factors. Our study demonstrates that serum progranulin is an independent maker for subclinical atherosclerosis, represented as CIMT. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process resulting from the interaction of modified lipoprotein, macrophages, and the normal cellular elements of the arterial wall [22]. Growing evidence suggests that various adipokines are directly involved inthe process of atherosclerosis [23]. An immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endoatherectomy specimens indicated that intimal vascular smooth muscle cells and some macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaque express progranulin [24]. Progranulin in the plaque would be cleaved into granulins, which increase IL-8 levels and drive the migration of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall [24]. A recent clinical study reported that serum progranulin levels were significantly higher in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is now regarded as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and were associated with adverse lipid profiles [25]. In the present study, an ind.

Metabolic syndrome (R2 = 0.433) (Constant) Age Diastolic blood pressure LDL-cholesterol 20.268 0.011 0.004 0.001 0.268 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.324 0.000 0.122 0.Independent variables

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