Nfected with adenovirus to drive overexpression of proteins defined below, then studied after 48 h of infection. Palmitate GNF-7 supplier oxidation rates were determined using 3H-palmitate as previously described [2]. VLDL-TG secretion was measured using 3Hglycerol after oleate stimulation (0.3 mM) as previously described [12].Transient Transfection and Luciferase AssaysHepG2 and HEK-293 cells were maintained in DMEM-10 fetal calf serum. Transient transfections with luciferase reporter 117793 constructs were performed by calcium-phosphate co-precipitation. SV40-driven renilla luciferase expression construct was also included in each well. For all vectors, promoterless reporters or 12926553 empty vector controls were included so that equal amounts of DNA were transfected into each well. Luciferase activity was quantified 48 h after transfection by using a luminometer and the Stop GloH dual luciferase kit (Promega). Assays were performed in duplicate. To control for transfection efficiency, firefly luciferase activity was corrected to renilla luciferase activity.Co-immunoprecipitation and Western Blotting AnalysesIn co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments, HepG2 cells were lysed and incubations performed in NP40-containing lysis buffer (20 mM Tris HCl, 100 mM NaCl, 0.5 NP40, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.5 mM PMSF, and protease inhibitor cocktail). Proteins were immunoprecipitated using protein A-conjugated agarose beads an antibody directed against HNF4a (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Precipitated proteins were electrophoresed on acrylamide gels. Western blotting analyses for IP studies and to demonstratesiRNA StudiesA human HNF4a-specific siRNA (siHNF4a) was obtained from Sigma. Scramble control siRNA was synthesized using a SilencerH Select siRNA kit (Ambion) as described [21]. The control siRNALipin 1 and HNFLipin 1 and HNFFigure 1. Lipin 1 is a target of HNF4a in HepG2 cells. [A] The schematic depicts luciferase reporter constructs driven by 2045 bp of 59 flanking sequence or 2293 bp 39 from the transcriptional start site of the Lpin1 gene. Graphs depict results of luciferase assays using lysates from HepG2 cells transfected with Lpin1.Luc reporter constructs and cotransfected with PGC-1a or PGC-1b expression constructs as indicated. The vector values are normalized ( = 1.0). The results are the mean of 3 independent experiments done in triplicate. *p,0.05 versus pCDNA control. [B and C] Graphs depict results of luciferase assays using lysates from HepG2 cells 1516647 transfected with +2293.Lpin1.Luc reporter construct and cotransfected expression constructs expressing WT or mL2 PGC-1a. The results are the mean of 3 independent experiments done in triplicate. *p,0.05 versus pCDNA control. **p,0.05 versus pCDNA control and HNF4a or PGC-1a overexpression alone. [D] The images depict the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation studies using chromatin from mouse hepatocytes infected with adenovirus to overexpress HNF4a. Crosslinked proteins were IP’ed with HNF4a antibody or IgG controls. “Input” represents 0.2 of the total chromatin used in the IP reactions. PCR primers were designed to amplify two regions of the Lpin1 gene promoter containing NRREs or exon 7 (negative control). [E] Inset images depict results of western blotting analyses for the HNF4a and b-actin in HepG2 cells infected with adenovirus to overexpress PGC-1a or GFP (control) and transfected with siRNA to knockdown HNF4a or scramble control siRNA. Graphs depict the expression of HNF4a or lipin 1 mRNA in HepG2 cells i.Nfected with adenovirus to drive overexpression of proteins defined below, then studied after 48 h of infection. Palmitate oxidation rates were determined using 3H-palmitate as previously described [2]. VLDL-TG secretion was measured using 3Hglycerol after oleate stimulation (0.3 mM) as previously described [12].Transient Transfection and Luciferase AssaysHepG2 and HEK-293 cells were maintained in DMEM-10 fetal calf serum. Transient transfections with luciferase reporter constructs were performed by calcium-phosphate co-precipitation. SV40-driven renilla luciferase expression construct was also included in each well. For all vectors, promoterless reporters or 12926553 empty vector controls were included so that equal amounts of DNA were transfected into each well. Luciferase activity was quantified 48 h after transfection by using a luminometer and the Stop GloH dual luciferase kit (Promega). Assays were performed in duplicate. To control for transfection efficiency, firefly luciferase activity was corrected to renilla luciferase activity.Co-immunoprecipitation and Western Blotting AnalysesIn co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments, HepG2 cells were lysed and incubations performed in NP40-containing lysis buffer (20 mM Tris HCl, 100 mM NaCl, 0.5 NP40, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.5 mM PMSF, and protease inhibitor cocktail). Proteins were immunoprecipitated using protein A-conjugated agarose beads an antibody directed against HNF4a (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Precipitated proteins were electrophoresed on acrylamide gels. Western blotting analyses for IP studies and to demonstratesiRNA StudiesA human HNF4a-specific siRNA (siHNF4a) was obtained from Sigma. Scramble control siRNA was synthesized using a SilencerH Select siRNA kit (Ambion) as described [21]. The control siRNALipin 1 and HNFLipin 1 and HNFFigure 1. Lipin 1 is a target of HNF4a in HepG2 cells. [A] The schematic depicts luciferase reporter constructs driven by 2045 bp of 59 flanking sequence or 2293 bp 39 from the transcriptional start site of the Lpin1 gene. Graphs depict results of luciferase assays using lysates from HepG2 cells transfected with Lpin1.Luc reporter constructs and cotransfected with PGC-1a or PGC-1b expression constructs as indicated. The vector values are normalized ( = 1.0). The results are the mean of 3 independent experiments done in triplicate. *p,0.05 versus pCDNA control. [B and C] Graphs depict results of luciferase assays using lysates from HepG2 cells 1516647 transfected with +2293.Lpin1.Luc reporter construct and cotransfected expression constructs expressing WT or mL2 PGC-1a. The results are the mean of 3 independent experiments done in triplicate. *p,0.05 versus pCDNA control. **p,0.05 versus pCDNA control and HNF4a or PGC-1a overexpression alone. [D] The images depict the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation studies using chromatin from mouse hepatocytes infected with adenovirus to overexpress HNF4a. Crosslinked proteins were IP’ed with HNF4a antibody or IgG controls. “Input” represents 0.2 of the total chromatin used in the IP reactions. PCR primers were designed to amplify two regions of the Lpin1 gene promoter containing NRREs or exon 7 (negative control). [E] Inset images depict results of western blotting analyses for the HNF4a and b-actin in HepG2 cells infected with adenovirus to overexpress PGC-1a or GFP (control) and transfected with siRNA to knockdown HNF4a or scramble control siRNA. Graphs depict the expression of HNF4a or lipin 1 mRNA in HepG2 cells i.

Nfected with adenovirus to drive overexpression of proteins defined below, then

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