Medium every seven days, for three to four weeks, until we MedChemExpress 298690-60-5 observed the formation of clumps of cells. EBV-B cells from the patients were maintained, at a density of 106/ml, in RPMI 1640+10 FCS, 2 mM L-glutamine, 50 units/ ml penicillin and 50 22948146 mg/ml streptomycin at 37uC. Patient fibroblasts were generated from a skin biopsy sample. Primary fibroblasts were then immortalized by transfection with the SVAP-4 Deficiency Associated with HSP and BCG-itisTable 2. Summary of whole-exome sequencing results.Total Novela 1199 222 112 7 0 0 1 9 6 6 2 13 3 10 Novel (homb) 159 29 9 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 1 4 0 0 Novel (hetc) 1040 193 103 6 0 0 1 7 4 6 1 9 3Type All variants Nonsynonymous Synonymous Stop gained Stop lost Start gained Start lost Splicing mutation Codon insertion/deletion Frameshift UTR-5d UTR-3e lincRNAf miRNAgaNo. of variants 61514 8569 9342 78 20 190 20 115 121 147 167 525 129hom 28599 3386 3835 21 8 98 11 57 81 79 85 246 71Het 32915 5183 5507 57 12 92 9 58 40 68 82 279 58Number of variants not found in dbSNP or 1000 Genomes or HapMap and ,0.001 in our database; Hom: homozygous mutation; c Het, heterozygous mutation; d UTR-5: the five-prime untranslated region; e UTR-3: the three-prime untranslated region; f lincRNA: long non-coding RNA; g miRNA: microRNA. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058286.tbT antigen [29]. They were maintained at subconfluence in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10 fetal calf serum, 2 mM L-glutamine, 50 units/ml penicillin and 50 mg/ml streptomycin at 37uC, with passaging (1:2) every three to four days.Exome Sequencing and AnalysisDNA (3 mg) extracted from EBV-B cells from the patient (P1) for massively parallel sequencing was sheared with a Covaris S2 Ultrasonicator (Covaris). An adapter-ligated library was prepared with the Paired-End Sample Prep Kit V1 (Illumina). Exome capture was performed with the SureSelect Human All Exon Kit (Agilent Technologies). Single-end sequencing was performed on an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina), generating 72-base reads. The sequences were aligned with the human genome reference sequence (hg18 build), with BWA aligner [30]. Three open-source packages were used for downstream processing and variant calling: Genome analysis toolkit (GATK), SAMtools and Picard Tools (http://picard.sourceforge.net/). Substitution calls were made with GATK UnifiedGenotyper, KDM5A-IN-1 site whereas indel calls were made with GATK IndelGenotyperV2. All calls with a read coverage #4x and a phred-scaled SNP quality of #30 were filtered out. All the variants were annotated with the SeattleSeq SNP annotation (http://gvs.gs.washington.edu/ SeattleSeqAnnotation/).Figure 2. mRNA and protein levels for the subunits of the AP-4 complex. A). RT-qPCR to assess mRNA levels for the components of the AP-4 complex in EBV-B cells from P1. B). RT-PCR to assess the splicing of AP4E1 mRNA. C). Western blot: whole-cell homogenates from EBV-B cells from P1 and a healthy control were subjected to western blotting for clathrin heavy chain (CHC; loading control), AP-4e, AP-4b or AP-4 m. The loss of AP-4e results in a concomitant decrease in the levels of AP-4b and AP-4 m (specific bands are indicated by an arrow). These experiments were carried out at least twice. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058286.gMolecular AnalysisWe used National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) accession numbers, including NG_031875.1, NM_001252127.1 and NP_001239056.1 for the number of AP4E1 genomic DNA (gDNA), mRNA and protein sequences.Medium every seven days, for three to four weeks, until we observed the formation of clumps of cells. EBV-B cells from the patients were maintained, at a density of 106/ml, in RPMI 1640+10 FCS, 2 mM L-glutamine, 50 units/ ml penicillin and 50 22948146 mg/ml streptomycin at 37uC. Patient fibroblasts were generated from a skin biopsy sample. Primary fibroblasts were then immortalized by transfection with the SVAP-4 Deficiency Associated with HSP and BCG-itisTable 2. Summary of whole-exome sequencing results.Total Novela 1199 222 112 7 0 0 1 9 6 6 2 13 3 10 Novel (homb) 159 29 9 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 1 4 0 0 Novel (hetc) 1040 193 103 6 0 0 1 7 4 6 1 9 3Type All variants Nonsynonymous Synonymous Stop gained Stop lost Start gained Start lost Splicing mutation Codon insertion/deletion Frameshift UTR-5d UTR-3e lincRNAf miRNAgaNo. of variants 61514 8569 9342 78 20 190 20 115 121 147 167 525 129hom 28599 3386 3835 21 8 98 11 57 81 79 85 246 71Het 32915 5183 5507 57 12 92 9 58 40 68 82 279 58Number of variants not found in dbSNP or 1000 Genomes or HapMap and ,0.001 in our database; Hom: homozygous mutation; c Het, heterozygous mutation; d UTR-5: the five-prime untranslated region; e UTR-3: the three-prime untranslated region; f lincRNA: long non-coding RNA; g miRNA: microRNA. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058286.tbT antigen [29]. They were maintained at subconfluence in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10 fetal calf serum, 2 mM L-glutamine, 50 units/ml penicillin and 50 mg/ml streptomycin at 37uC, with passaging (1:2) every three to four days.Exome Sequencing and AnalysisDNA (3 mg) extracted from EBV-B cells from the patient (P1) for massively parallel sequencing was sheared with a Covaris S2 Ultrasonicator (Covaris). An adapter-ligated library was prepared with the Paired-End Sample Prep Kit V1 (Illumina). Exome capture was performed with the SureSelect Human All Exon Kit (Agilent Technologies). Single-end sequencing was performed on an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina), generating 72-base reads. The sequences were aligned with the human genome reference sequence (hg18 build), with BWA aligner [30]. Three open-source packages were used for downstream processing and variant calling: Genome analysis toolkit (GATK), SAMtools and Picard Tools (http://picard.sourceforge.net/). Substitution calls were made with GATK UnifiedGenotyper, whereas indel calls were made with GATK IndelGenotyperV2. All calls with a read coverage #4x and a phred-scaled SNP quality of #30 were filtered out. All the variants were annotated with the SeattleSeq SNP annotation (http://gvs.gs.washington.edu/ SeattleSeqAnnotation/).Figure 2. mRNA and protein levels for the subunits of the AP-4 complex. A). RT-qPCR to assess mRNA levels for the components of the AP-4 complex in EBV-B cells from P1. B). RT-PCR to assess the splicing of AP4E1 mRNA. C). Western blot: whole-cell homogenates from EBV-B cells from P1 and a healthy control were subjected to western blotting for clathrin heavy chain (CHC; loading control), AP-4e, AP-4b or AP-4 m. The loss of AP-4e results in a concomitant decrease in the levels of AP-4b and AP-4 m (specific bands are indicated by an arrow). These experiments were carried out at least twice. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058286.gMolecular AnalysisWe used National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) accession numbers, including NG_031875.1, NM_001252127.1 and NP_001239056.1 for the number of AP4E1 genomic DNA (gDNA), mRNA and protein sequences.

Medium every seven days, for three to four weeks, until we

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