Nine Adenine+GAGSH (mg/g) 7.2160.45 8.0160.85# 4.7360.40 6.0160.* #SOD (U/g) 1.3660.13 1.8660.19# 0.8960.10 1.1760.The values represent the mean 6 SEM (n = 6). * p,0.05 vs. control, # p,0.05 vs. adenine treatment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) NT-157 concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in renal homogenates, and total antioxidant activity (TAOA) was estimated in plasma. a mM uric acid equivalents. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055242.tGum Arabic and Adenine Chronic Renal FailureMaterials and Methods AnimalsMale Wistar rats (9?0 weeks old, weighing 249610 g) were housed in a room at a temperature of 2262uC, relative humidity of about 60 , with a 12 h light ark cycle (lights on 6:00), and free access to standard pellet chow diet containing 0.85 phosphorus, 1.12 purchase Tubastatin A calcium, 0.35 magnesium, 25.3 crude protein and 2.5 IU/g vitamin D3 (Oman Flour Mills, Muscat, Oman) and water. Procedures involving animals and their care were carried out in accordance with international laws and policies (EEC Council directives 86/609, OJL 358, 1 December, 12, 1987; NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, NIH Publications No. 85?3, 1985), and ethical clearance was obtained from the Small Animal Research Ethics Committee of Sultan Qaboos University.Experimental DesignAfter an acclimatization period of one week, rats (n = 24) were randomly divided into four equal groups and treated for four consecutive weeks. The first group continued to receive the same diet without treatment until the end of the study (control group). The second group was switched to a powder diet containing adenine (0.75 w/w in feed). The third group was given normal food and GA (SUPERGUMTM EM 10) in drinking water at a concentration of 15 w/v. The fourth group was given adenine in the feed as in group two, plus GA in drinking water at a concentration of 15 w/v. The dose of adenine was chosen from the original method by Yokozawa et 15755315 al. [55] and the dose of GA was chosen on the basis of our previous experiments with GA [21,23]. It was slightly increased in this and other subsequent studies [56], in order to maximize the effect of GA. During the treatment period, the rats were weighed weekly. For the collection of urine, they were placed individually in metabolic cages for 24 h, after the 28 days treatment period. On the morning after the metabolic sampling, the rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (75 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg), and blood (about 3.5 mL) was collected from the anterior vena cava and placed into heparinized tubes. The blood and urine were centrifuged at 900 g at 4uC for 15 min. The plasma obtained, together with the urine specimens, was stored at 280uC to await analysis within 4 weeks after the end of the treatment. The two kidneys were excised, blotted on filter paper and weighed. The rest of the kidneys were kept frozen at 280uC for pending biochemical analysis within three days. The left kidney was homogenized in ice-cold Tris buffer (pH 7.4) to give a 10 w/v homogenate. The latter was centrifuged at 1500 g at 4uC for 15 min, and the supernatant obtained was used to measure glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.Figure 6. Representative pictures of superoxide formation visualized by using the dye dihydroethidium on kidney cryosections (A). Superoxide (B) and DNA double strand break formation (C) in control rats, rats treated with gum arabic (15 w/v in drinking water) and rats treated wi.Nine Adenine+GAGSH (mg/g) 7.2160.45 8.0160.85# 4.7360.40 6.0160.* #SOD (U/g) 1.3660.13 1.8660.19# 0.8960.10 1.1760.The values represent the mean 6 SEM (n = 6). * p,0.05 vs. control, # p,0.05 vs. adenine treatment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in renal homogenates, and total antioxidant activity (TAOA) was estimated in plasma. a mM uric acid equivalents. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055242.tGum Arabic and Adenine Chronic Renal FailureMaterials and Methods AnimalsMale Wistar rats (9?0 weeks old, weighing 249610 g) were housed in a room at a temperature of 2262uC, relative humidity of about 60 , with a 12 h light ark cycle (lights on 6:00), and free access to standard pellet chow diet containing 0.85 phosphorus, 1.12 calcium, 0.35 magnesium, 25.3 crude protein and 2.5 IU/g vitamin D3 (Oman Flour Mills, Muscat, Oman) and water. Procedures involving animals and their care were carried out in accordance with international laws and policies (EEC Council directives 86/609, OJL 358, 1 December, 12, 1987; NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, NIH Publications No. 85?3, 1985), and ethical clearance was obtained from the Small Animal Research Ethics Committee of Sultan Qaboos University.Experimental DesignAfter an acclimatization period of one week, rats (n = 24) were randomly divided into four equal groups and treated for four consecutive weeks. The first group continued to receive the same diet without treatment until the end of the study (control group). The second group was switched to a powder diet containing adenine (0.75 w/w in feed). The third group was given normal food and GA (SUPERGUMTM EM 10) in drinking water at a concentration of 15 w/v. The fourth group was given adenine in the feed as in group two, plus GA in drinking water at a concentration of 15 w/v. The dose of adenine was chosen from the original method by Yokozawa et 15755315 al. [55] and the dose of GA was chosen on the basis of our previous experiments with GA [21,23]. It was slightly increased in this and other subsequent studies [56], in order to maximize the effect of GA. During the treatment period, the rats were weighed weekly. For the collection of urine, they were placed individually in metabolic cages for 24 h, after the 28 days treatment period. On the morning after the metabolic sampling, the rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (75 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg), and blood (about 3.5 mL) was collected from the anterior vena cava and placed into heparinized tubes. The blood and urine were centrifuged at 900 g at 4uC for 15 min. The plasma obtained, together with the urine specimens, was stored at 280uC to await analysis within 4 weeks after the end of the treatment. The two kidneys were excised, blotted on filter paper and weighed. The rest of the kidneys were kept frozen at 280uC for pending biochemical analysis within three days. The left kidney was homogenized in ice-cold Tris buffer (pH 7.4) to give a 10 w/v homogenate. The latter was centrifuged at 1500 g at 4uC for 15 min, and the supernatant obtained was used to measure glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.Figure 6. Representative pictures of superoxide formation visualized by using the dye dihydroethidium on kidney cryosections (A). Superoxide (B) and DNA double strand break formation (C) in control rats, rats treated with gum arabic (15 w/v in drinking water) and rats treated wi.

Nine Adenine+GAGSH (mg/g) 7.2160.45 8.0160.85# 4.7360.40 6.0160.* #SOD (U/g) 1.3660.13 1.8660.19# 0.8960.10 1.1760.The values represent

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