R immobilized peptides. An empty flow cell was used as reference. Regeneration was achieved with a short pulse of SDS 0.05 .Preparation of Calcein-liposomes and Leakage MeasurementL-a-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), L-a-phosphatidyl-DL-glycerol (PG), cardiolipin (CL), calcein, ammonium thiocyanate andAntimicrobial Activity of M33 Peptide D-Isomeriron (III) chloride hexahydrate and all other chemical (reagent grade) were obtained from Sigma. Calcein-loaded liposomes of two different composition (PE/PG, 7:3 mol/mol and CL/PG, 4:6 mol/mol) were prepared as follows. The lipids were dissolved in chloroform (1 ml) and sonicated together with 60 mM calcein solution (1 ml in phosphate buffer, pH 7.0); the liposomes were obtained by the reverse phase evaporation method [35]. The calcein excess was Hypericin biological activity removed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50) followed by centrifuging at 22000 g for 30 min. For vesicle size homogeneity, the pellet was passed several times through 200 mm polycarbonate membranes in a Miniextruder apparatus (Avanti Polar Lipids Inc., Alabaster AL) [36]. Lipid concentration of vesicles was measured by the method of Stewart [37] and the final concentration used for all measurements was 50 mM. Calcein fluorescence in the vesicles is self-quenched and leakage was measured by relief of quenching; the measurements were carried out at 517 nm, exciting at 490 nm, with a Perkin-Elmer LS 50B spectrofluorimeter. The maximum value of leakage was obtained by addition of 10 ml of Triton X-100 (10 , v/v in water) to the liposome suspension, which caused total disruption of vesicles. Leakage was calculated by the equation: Leakage ( ) 100|(F{F0 )=(Ft {F0 ), where F and Ft are fluorescence before and after addition of detergent and F0 the fluorescence of intact vesicles [38].Protease Sensitivity AssayTetrabranched M33-L or M33-D peptides (300 mg) were incubated at 37uC with Staphylococcus aureus aureolysin (3 mg, BioCol GmbH) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (3 mg, Calbiochem) in 300 ml 20 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM CaCl2 pH 7.8. At indicated time intervals, 50 ml aliquots were removed, diluted with 950 ml of 0.1 trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)/water and analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography was performed on Phenomenex Jupiter C18 analytical column ?(300 A, 5 mm, 25064.6 mm) in a 30 min gradient, using TFA 0.1 /water as solvent A and methanol as solvent B. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed on withdrawn samples and repeated on HPLC-eluted peaks with a Bruker Daltonic ultraflex MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometer.remove planktonic cells. The peg-lid was then transferred to a 96well 58543-16-1 price challenge microtiter plate, each well containing 200 ml of a twofold serial dilution of each peptide in LB medium. The challenge plate was incubated at 37uC for 2 hours. Peptide activity on pre-formed biofilm was evaluated by two independent methods: (i) visual observation 1326631 of bacterial growth and (ii) counting of living bacterial cells after peptide treatment. In the first case, the peg-lid was removed from the challenge plate, rinsed with PBS and used to cover a 96-well recovery microtiter plate, each well containing 200 ml LB medium. The recovery plate was sealed, incubated at 37uC for 4 hours and then observed for any visible growth of bacteria detached from the peptide-treated biofilm. Growth of bacteria in a particular well indicated regrowth of planktonic cells from surviving biofilm. Minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was defined as the minim.R immobilized peptides. An empty flow cell was used as reference. Regeneration was achieved with a short pulse of SDS 0.05 .Preparation of Calcein-liposomes and Leakage MeasurementL-a-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), L-a-phosphatidyl-DL-glycerol (PG), cardiolipin (CL), calcein, ammonium thiocyanate andAntimicrobial Activity of M33 Peptide D-Isomeriron (III) chloride hexahydrate and all other chemical (reagent grade) were obtained from Sigma. Calcein-loaded liposomes of two different composition (PE/PG, 7:3 mol/mol and CL/PG, 4:6 mol/mol) were prepared as follows. The lipids were dissolved in chloroform (1 ml) and sonicated together with 60 mM calcein solution (1 ml in phosphate buffer, pH 7.0); the liposomes were obtained by the reverse phase evaporation method [35]. The calcein excess was removed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50) followed by centrifuging at 22000 g for 30 min. For vesicle size homogeneity, the pellet was passed several times through 200 mm polycarbonate membranes in a Miniextruder apparatus (Avanti Polar Lipids Inc., Alabaster AL) [36]. Lipid concentration of vesicles was measured by the method of Stewart [37] and the final concentration used for all measurements was 50 mM. Calcein fluorescence in the vesicles is self-quenched and leakage was measured by relief of quenching; the measurements were carried out at 517 nm, exciting at 490 nm, with a Perkin-Elmer LS 50B spectrofluorimeter. The maximum value of leakage was obtained by addition of 10 ml of Triton X-100 (10 , v/v in water) to the liposome suspension, which caused total disruption of vesicles. Leakage was calculated by the equation: Leakage ( ) 100|(F{F0 )=(Ft {F0 ), where F and Ft are fluorescence before and after addition of detergent and F0 the fluorescence of intact vesicles [38].Protease Sensitivity AssayTetrabranched M33-L or M33-D peptides (300 mg) were incubated at 37uC with Staphylococcus aureus aureolysin (3 mg, BioCol GmbH) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (3 mg, Calbiochem) in 300 ml 20 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM CaCl2 pH 7.8. At indicated time intervals, 50 ml aliquots were removed, diluted with 950 ml of 0.1 trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)/water and analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography was performed on Phenomenex Jupiter C18 analytical column ?(300 A, 5 mm, 25064.6 mm) in a 30 min gradient, using TFA 0.1 /water as solvent A and methanol as solvent B. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed on withdrawn samples and repeated on HPLC-eluted peaks with a Bruker Daltonic ultraflex MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometer.remove planktonic cells. The peg-lid was then transferred to a 96well challenge microtiter plate, each well containing 200 ml of a twofold serial dilution of each peptide in LB medium. The challenge plate was incubated at 37uC for 2 hours. Peptide activity on pre-formed biofilm was evaluated by two independent methods: (i) visual observation 1326631 of bacterial growth and (ii) counting of living bacterial cells after peptide treatment. In the first case, the peg-lid was removed from the challenge plate, rinsed with PBS and used to cover a 96-well recovery microtiter plate, each well containing 200 ml LB medium. The recovery plate was sealed, incubated at 37uC for 4 hours and then observed for any visible growth of bacteria detached from the peptide-treated biofilm. Growth of bacteria in a particular well indicated regrowth of planktonic cells from surviving biofilm. Minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was defined as the minim.

R immobilized peptides. An empty flow cell was used as reference.

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