Than human SOD1. The concentration of urinary CaM, as determined by ELISA assay, was 75615 pg/ mmol creatinine (mean 6 SD) in the masterpool control CASIN site sample and increased to 15065 pg/mmol creatinine in urine sample 1 and 34006250 pg/mmol creatinine in urine sample 2. Of all urinary proteins identified in mouse urine, CaM was the only protein found in urine of mice treated with a high dose of APAP that did not have 298690-60-5 chemical information elevated plasma ALT. Therefore, CaM could serve as an early biomarker for acute DILI. To further evaluate the potential of urinary CaM as novel biomarker for human acute DILI, we collected urine samples of patients that were admitted to the emergency room with suspected acute DILI. We collected urine of 8 patients with APAP intoxication and 2 patients with acute liver injury caused by other drugs, not including APAP (DILI 1 and DILI 2; Table 1). Although the patients with APAP intoxications did not show elevated plasma ALT levels, urinary CaM concentration was increased compared to the masterpool control sample and this increase correlated significantly with plasma APAP concentration (Figure 4B). Furthermore, urinary CaM concentration was increased in both patients with acute DILI not caused by APAP, to 140 pg/mmol creatinine in DILI 1 and 257 pg/mmol creatinine in DILI 2. These two patients, unlike the APAP intoxicants, did have elevated plasma ALT levels. To rule out acute kidney injury, plasma creatinine concentrations were measured, which were not increased in the APAP intoxicants and DILI 1, and only slightly elevated in DILI 2 (Table 2).Presence of SOD1, CA3 and CaM in urine is related to APAP-induced liver injury in miceAfter urine profiling, an increased abundance in protein peaks was observed for mice treated with 275 and 350 mg/kg APAP compared to control and AMAP (Figure 2A). In total, 66 protein peaks in the WCX beads spectra, and 75 protein peaks in the C8 beads spectra were detected as significantly different between all APAP treatments and control. These proteins presented with increasing peak intensities in urine of mice with elevated plasma ALT values (Figure 2B). Most protein peaks were only detectable in urine of mice with relatively severe APAP-induced liver injury. However, two proteins of 15.9 and 16.8 kDa, later identified as SOD1 and CaM, respectively, were observed in the C8 beads spectra at low plasma ALT levels. The eleven differentiating proteins that were identified using vMALDI LTQ are depicted in Table 2. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of these proteins and additionally retrieved the identity of the 16.8 kDa protein, which was not found using vMALDI-LTQ (Table 3). Besides SOD1 and CaM, also peak intensities of fragments of CA3 correlated closely with plasma ALT values (Figure 2C ), and therefore these 3 proteins were investigated further. To confirm the presence of CA3 and SOD1 in urine by a specific antibody, we used Western blot analysis, as shown in Figure 3A. Whereas CA3 could be detected only in urine of mice with high plasma ALT (.3500 U/L) values, SOD1 was associated with minor elevations in plasma ALT (.100 U/L) and it gradually amplified with increasing plasma ALT values. After measuring the intensities of the SOD1 signal in the Western blot, linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between urinary SOD1 and plasma ALT levels (Figure 3B). The third potential biomarker, CaM, was confirmed with an immunocapUrinary Biomarkers of Acetaminophen HepatotoxicityFigure.Than human SOD1. The concentration of urinary CaM, as determined by ELISA assay, was 75615 pg/ mmol creatinine (mean 6 SD) in the masterpool control sample and increased to 15065 pg/mmol creatinine in urine sample 1 and 34006250 pg/mmol creatinine in urine sample 2. Of all urinary proteins identified in mouse urine, CaM was the only protein found in urine of mice treated with a high dose of APAP that did not have elevated plasma ALT. Therefore, CaM could serve as an early biomarker for acute DILI. To further evaluate the potential of urinary CaM as novel biomarker for human acute DILI, we collected urine samples of patients that were admitted to the emergency room with suspected acute DILI. We collected urine of 8 patients with APAP intoxication and 2 patients with acute liver injury caused by other drugs, not including APAP (DILI 1 and DILI 2; Table 1). Although the patients with APAP intoxications did not show elevated plasma ALT levels, urinary CaM concentration was increased compared to the masterpool control sample and this increase correlated significantly with plasma APAP concentration (Figure 4B). Furthermore, urinary CaM concentration was increased in both patients with acute DILI not caused by APAP, to 140 pg/mmol creatinine in DILI 1 and 257 pg/mmol creatinine in DILI 2. These two patients, unlike the APAP intoxicants, did have elevated plasma ALT levels. To rule out acute kidney injury, plasma creatinine concentrations were measured, which were not increased in the APAP intoxicants and DILI 1, and only slightly elevated in DILI 2 (Table 2).Presence of SOD1, CA3 and CaM in urine is related to APAP-induced liver injury in miceAfter urine profiling, an increased abundance in protein peaks was observed for mice treated with 275 and 350 mg/kg APAP compared to control and AMAP (Figure 2A). In total, 66 protein peaks in the WCX beads spectra, and 75 protein peaks in the C8 beads spectra were detected as significantly different between all APAP treatments and control. These proteins presented with increasing peak intensities in urine of mice with elevated plasma ALT values (Figure 2B). Most protein peaks were only detectable in urine of mice with relatively severe APAP-induced liver injury. However, two proteins of 15.9 and 16.8 kDa, later identified as SOD1 and CaM, respectively, were observed in the C8 beads spectra at low plasma ALT levels. The eleven differentiating proteins that were identified using vMALDI LTQ are depicted in Table 2. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of these proteins and additionally retrieved the identity of the 16.8 kDa protein, which was not found using vMALDI-LTQ (Table 3). Besides SOD1 and CaM, also peak intensities of fragments of CA3 correlated closely with plasma ALT values (Figure 2C ), and therefore these 3 proteins were investigated further. To confirm the presence of CA3 and SOD1 in urine by a specific antibody, we used Western blot analysis, as shown in Figure 3A. Whereas CA3 could be detected only in urine of mice with high plasma ALT (.3500 U/L) values, SOD1 was associated with minor elevations in plasma ALT (.100 U/L) and it gradually amplified with increasing plasma ALT values. After measuring the intensities of the SOD1 signal in the Western blot, linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between urinary SOD1 and plasma ALT levels (Figure 3B). The third potential biomarker, CaM, was confirmed with an immunocapUrinary Biomarkers of Acetaminophen HepatotoxicityFigure.

Than human SOD1. The concentration of urinary CaM, as determined by

About author

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.