S (DD-CPases) and/or endopeptidases that 1516647 are involved in the regulation of the level of peptidoglycan reticulation, but dispensable for survival in laboratory cultures [6?]. Bacteria have evolved several means to counteract b-lactams. One of the most common strategies in Gram-negative bacteria is to produce b-lactamases that hydrolyze the antibiotics. There aretwo major classes of b-lactamases based on their primary structure. Serine b-lactamases harbor an SXXK motif that is essential for catalytic reaction, whereas metallo-b-lactamases require one or two Zn2+ ions for activity by binding with His/Cys/Asp residues at the active site [10]. Another important strategy is to utilize extra PBPs with low affinity for the b-lactams, particularly LMW PBPs although many questions about the functions of these proteins remain unresolved [5,6,11]. E. coli PBP4 and PBP5, sharing a common ancestor with b-lactamases, have been shown to be able to hydrolyze penicillin in vitro although in vivo evidence is lacking [12,13]. Recently, it has been proposed that redundant PBPs, especially PBP5 whose removal renders cells significantly more susceptible to b-lactams, may serve as traps for b-lactams, shielding over the essential PBPs from inhibition by b-lactams [8]. Intriguingly, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa the inactivation of PBP4 JI-101 biological activity triggered overproduction of the chromosomal b-lactamase AmpC, and thus to b-lactam resistance [7]. Shewanella oneidensis, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, is renowned for its respiratory versatility [14]. Because of the potential application in bioremediation, biogeochemical circulation of minerals 15481974 and bioelectricity, the bacterium has been intensively investigated, especially in the field of metal reduction and stress response [14,15]. In recent years, S. oneidensis has become a research model for investigating respiratory pathways, biofilm formation, biofuel production, and bioenergy generation as well [16?3]. In the Shewanella research community, it is well known that most, if not all strains are naturally resistant to ampicillin, a widely utilized b-lactam antibiotic in genetic manipulation [24]. Surprisingly, Poirel et al. reported that S.Expression of blaA in S. oneidensisoneidensis is susceptible to all 14 b-lactam antibiotics (excluding ampicillin) of four b-lactam classes tested [25]. Apart from this, little is known about how S. oneidensis cells respond to these antibiotics although the subject is relevant to their utilization for genetic screens as well as in natural environments. Here we report that certain b-lactams induce lysis of S. oneidensis cells only within a narrow concentration range. We show that BlaA, one of seven putative b-lactamases encoded in the genome, is the only one conferring b-lactam resistance under the conditions tested. Insufficient expression of this b-lactamase predominantly BTZ-043 site accounts for cell lysis by low doses of ampicillin. We also found that expression of blaA is not only responsive to b-lactam antibiotics but also significantly affected by PBP5, the most abundant LMW PBP.Results Ampicillin and penicillin inhibit pellicle formation at subMIC concentrationsA natural product screen identified a penicillin-like compound to inhibit growth and pellicle (biofilm at the air-liquid interface) formation most effective at sub-inhibitory concentrations (subMIC) (data not shown). The finding was unexpected given that Shewanella is known to be naturally resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Moreove.S (DD-CPases) and/or endopeptidases that 1516647 are involved in the regulation of the level of peptidoglycan reticulation, but dispensable for survival in laboratory cultures [6?]. Bacteria have evolved several means to counteract b-lactams. One of the most common strategies in Gram-negative bacteria is to produce b-lactamases that hydrolyze the antibiotics. There aretwo major classes of b-lactamases based on their primary structure. Serine b-lactamases harbor an SXXK motif that is essential for catalytic reaction, whereas metallo-b-lactamases require one or two Zn2+ ions for activity by binding with His/Cys/Asp residues at the active site [10]. Another important strategy is to utilize extra PBPs with low affinity for the b-lactams, particularly LMW PBPs although many questions about the functions of these proteins remain unresolved [5,6,11]. E. coli PBP4 and PBP5, sharing a common ancestor with b-lactamases, have been shown to be able to hydrolyze penicillin in vitro although in vivo evidence is lacking [12,13]. Recently, it has been proposed that redundant PBPs, especially PBP5 whose removal renders cells significantly more susceptible to b-lactams, may serve as traps for b-lactams, shielding over the essential PBPs from inhibition by b-lactams [8]. Intriguingly, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa the inactivation of PBP4 triggered overproduction of the chromosomal b-lactamase AmpC, and thus to b-lactam resistance [7]. Shewanella oneidensis, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, is renowned for its respiratory versatility [14]. Because of the potential application in bioremediation, biogeochemical circulation of minerals 15481974 and bioelectricity, the bacterium has been intensively investigated, especially in the field of metal reduction and stress response [14,15]. In recent years, S. oneidensis has become a research model for investigating respiratory pathways, biofilm formation, biofuel production, and bioenergy generation as well [16?3]. In the Shewanella research community, it is well known that most, if not all strains are naturally resistant to ampicillin, a widely utilized b-lactam antibiotic in genetic manipulation [24]. Surprisingly, Poirel et al. reported that S.Expression of blaA in S. oneidensisoneidensis is susceptible to all 14 b-lactam antibiotics (excluding ampicillin) of four b-lactam classes tested [25]. Apart from this, little is known about how S. oneidensis cells respond to these antibiotics although the subject is relevant to their utilization for genetic screens as well as in natural environments. Here we report that certain b-lactams induce lysis of S. oneidensis cells only within a narrow concentration range. We show that BlaA, one of seven putative b-lactamases encoded in the genome, is the only one conferring b-lactam resistance under the conditions tested. Insufficient expression of this b-lactamase predominantly accounts for cell lysis by low doses of ampicillin. We also found that expression of blaA is not only responsive to b-lactam antibiotics but also significantly affected by PBP5, the most abundant LMW PBP.Results Ampicillin and penicillin inhibit pellicle formation at subMIC concentrationsA natural product screen identified a penicillin-like compound to inhibit growth and pellicle (biofilm at the air-liquid interface) formation most effective at sub-inhibitory concentrations (subMIC) (data not shown). The finding was unexpected given that Shewanella is known to be naturally resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Moreove.

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