Sion segregated according to TST and IFN-c ELISPOT resultsAll groups, except the IC group who all have confirmed infection, had the potential to display heterogeneity in terms of Mtb exposure: not all contacts are necessarily infected (although we would expect most to be infected) and the CC group would be expected to include some with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We therefore compared the 64849-39-4 expression of the target genes in TSTpositive and TST-negative individuals. FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in the TST-positive (induration .5 mm)Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisFigure 2. Comparison of peripheral blood gene expression in the contacts and controls after 3 months of follow-up. Expression on inclusion in the study (M0) and after 3 months of follow-up (M3) for (A) TNFR1, (B) TNFR2, (C) FLIPs and (D) FLICE. The data shown are the median and ranges for mRNA levels normalized and expressed as the number of copies per 105 copies of the mRNA for the 1454585-06-8 chemical information housekeeping gene, HuPO. MannWhitney U tests were used for the pairwise comparison of groups. Significant differences between the testing periods are shown. HC: household contact, CC: community control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.gsubjects than in the TST-negative subjects, in all clinical groups (figure 3C). A comparison of apoptotic gene expression segregated by PPD ELISPOT results showed that all the genes studied (FLIPs, FLICE, TNFR1 and TNFR2) were more strongly expressed in PPD ELISPOT-positive individuals than in PPD ELISPOT-negative individuals (Figure 3). However, only FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in the ESAT-6 ELISPOT-positive individuals than in the ESAT-6 ELISPOT-negative individuals (p,0.05, figure 3), with no 15481974 difference observed for the other genes studied. Furthermore, an analysis of each clinical group segregated by TST response showed that, within the hHC group, FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in individuals with a positive TST than in those with a negative TST (p#0.01, figure 4) but no difference was seen for the other genes or clinical groups. All four genes were significantly more strongly expressed in the PPD ELISPOT-positive hHC and CC than in the non-responders (p,0.05, Figure 5). Nothing can be said about the IC group in this regard, since all but one were PPD, ELISPOT positive. Finally segregation of each clinical group by ESAT-6 responsiveness gave a result resembling the TST analysis. Within the hHC group, FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in those with a positive result for ESAT-6 ELISPOT than in hHC with a negative ESAT6 ELISPOT result (p = 0.02, Figure 6). This association of elevated expression of FLIPs with TST and ELISPOT positivity indicates it may be related to infection.Assessment of WBC composition in the different clinical groupsWe investigated the correlation between the expression of the apoptotic genes studied and differences in the composition of theApoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisFigure 3. Peripheral blood gene expression as a function of TST, PPD-IFN-c-ELISPOT and ESAT-6 ELISPOT responses. (A) TNFR1, (B) TNFR2, (C) FLIPs and (D) FLICE. The data shown are the median and ranges of mRNA levels normalized and expressed as the number of copies per 105 copies of mRNA for the housekeeping gene, HuPO. The threshold for TST positivity was fixed at .5 mm. Neg, TST induration ,5 mm, Pos, TST induration 5 mm in diameter. ELISPOT positivity was defined as described by Ra.Sion segregated according to TST and IFN-c ELISPOT resultsAll groups, except the IC group who all have confirmed infection, had the potential to display heterogeneity in terms of Mtb exposure: not all contacts are necessarily infected (although we would expect most to be infected) and the CC group would be expected to include some with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We therefore compared the expression of the target genes in TSTpositive and TST-negative individuals. FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in the TST-positive (induration .5 mm)Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisFigure 2. Comparison of peripheral blood gene expression in the contacts and controls after 3 months of follow-up. Expression on inclusion in the study (M0) and after 3 months of follow-up (M3) for (A) TNFR1, (B) TNFR2, (C) FLIPs and (D) FLICE. The data shown are the median and ranges for mRNA levels normalized and expressed as the number of copies per 105 copies of the mRNA for the housekeeping gene, HuPO. MannWhitney U tests were used for the pairwise comparison of groups. Significant differences between the testing periods are shown. HC: household contact, CC: community control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.gsubjects than in the TST-negative subjects, in all clinical groups (figure 3C). A comparison of apoptotic gene expression segregated by PPD ELISPOT results showed that all the genes studied (FLIPs, FLICE, TNFR1 and TNFR2) were more strongly expressed in PPD ELISPOT-positive individuals than in PPD ELISPOT-negative individuals (Figure 3). However, only FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in the ESAT-6 ELISPOT-positive individuals than in the ESAT-6 ELISPOT-negative individuals (p,0.05, figure 3), with no 15481974 difference observed for the other genes studied. Furthermore, an analysis of each clinical group segregated by TST response showed that, within the hHC group, FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in individuals with a positive TST than in those with a negative TST (p#0.01, figure 4) but no difference was seen for the other genes or clinical groups. All four genes were significantly more strongly expressed in the PPD ELISPOT-positive hHC and CC than in the non-responders (p,0.05, Figure 5). Nothing can be said about the IC group in this regard, since all but one were PPD, ELISPOT positive. Finally segregation of each clinical group by ESAT-6 responsiveness gave a result resembling the TST analysis. Within the hHC group, FLIPs expression was significantly stronger in those with a positive result for ESAT-6 ELISPOT than in hHC with a negative ESAT6 ELISPOT result (p = 0.02, Figure 6). This association of elevated expression of FLIPs with TST and ELISPOT positivity indicates it may be related to infection.Assessment of WBC composition in the different clinical groupsWe investigated the correlation between the expression of the apoptotic genes studied and differences in the composition of theApoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisFigure 3. Peripheral blood gene expression as a function of TST, PPD-IFN-c-ELISPOT and ESAT-6 ELISPOT responses. (A) TNFR1, (B) TNFR2, (C) FLIPs and (D) FLICE. The data shown are the median and ranges of mRNA levels normalized and expressed as the number of copies per 105 copies of mRNA for the housekeeping gene, HuPO. The threshold for TST positivity was fixed at .5 mm. Neg, TST induration ,5 mm, Pos, TST induration 5 mm in diameter. ELISPOT positivity was defined as described by Ra.

Sion segregated according to TST and IFN-c ELISPOT resultsAll groups, except

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