Orescence in S. pneumoniae. To answer this question we constructed a series of plasmids, encoding mCherry or Citrine, in which successive fragments of the linker were removed, leaving intact the original promoter region and starting codon (Fig. 3A). Quantification of the fluorescent signal expressed by pneumococcal strains encoding truncated mCherry proteins (strains BCSMH040 to BCSMH043) showed that removal of the linker caused only a small increase in the observed buy Pentagastrin fluorescence (Fig. 3B), which was still 80 lower than the signal obtained for strain BCSMH006, expressing WzemCherry [14]. No increase in the fluorescence signal was observed when the linker region was removed from the Citrine protein (data not shown) indicating that this region was not impairing fluorescence in pneumococcal bacteria.Figure 1. Fluorescent signals emitted by mCherry, Citrine, CFP and GFP protein fusions are detectable in live S. pneumoniae bacteria. (A) The septal localization of Wze protein fusions expressed in the encapsulated ATCC6314 strain is shown for Wze-mCherry (strain BCSMH015), Wze-Citrine (strain BCSMH016), Arg8-vasopressin manufacturer Wze-CFP (strain BCSMH029), Wze-GFP (strain BCSMH030). No comparable signal was detected in cells containing an empty vector (strain BCSMH052) visualized using appropriate filters for each fluorescent protein. (B) Three cultures of unencapsulated R36A strain expressing Wze-mCherry (strain BCSMH006, red dots), Wze-Citrine (strain BCSMH007, yellow dots) and Wze-CFP (strain BCSMH035, blue dots) were prepared for fluorescence microscopy observation as described in the Materials and Methods section, mixed on the same slide, and visualized using appropriate filters for each fluorescent protein. Fluorescence intensity was plotted, showing that the signals from each protein do not overlap. A representative image is shown at the bottom of the figure. Exposure times were 5 sec. Scale bar: 2 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055049.gExpression of Fluorescent Proteins in S.pneumoniaeFigure 2. Fluorescent signals emitted by untagged mCherry, Citrine, CFP and GFP proteins are not detectable. The median intensity, with 25 (white error bars) and 75 (black error bars) interquartile range (in arbitrary units) of the fluorescence signal in unencapsulated bacteria expressing Wze-mCherry (strain BCSMH006), mCherry (strain BCSMH032), Wze-Citrine (strain BCSMH007), Citrine (strain BCSMH033), Wze-CFP (strain BCSMH033), CFP (strain BCSMH034), Wze-GFP (strain BCSMH035) and 1662274 GFP (strain BCSMH036), is plotted. At least 100 cells of each strain were quantified. Representative images of each strain are shown at the 1326631 bottom. Scale bar: 2 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055049.gAs a second hypothesis, we asked whether there was a specific nucleotide sequence present in the coding sequence of Wze that increased protein expression in the Wze-Citrine fusion. This was based on the fact that the 59 coding region of the mRNA, immediately after the start codon, has been proposed to have an important role in ensuring protein translation in bacteria. This effect seems to be more dependent on the predicted mRNA secondary structure of this region than on codon usage bias or GC contents [21]. In order to identify that putative nucleotide sequence, pneumococcal bacteria were transformed with plasmids encoding different truncated forms of Wze-Citrine fusion (Fig. 4). Deletion of the central region (amino acids 51?77, strain BCSJC004) or the C-terminal region (amino acids 178?27, strain BCSJC005).Orescence in S. pneumoniae. To answer this question we constructed a series of plasmids, encoding mCherry or Citrine, in which successive fragments of the linker were removed, leaving intact the original promoter region and starting codon (Fig. 3A). Quantification of the fluorescent signal expressed by pneumococcal strains encoding truncated mCherry proteins (strains BCSMH040 to BCSMH043) showed that removal of the linker caused only a small increase in the observed fluorescence (Fig. 3B), which was still 80 lower than the signal obtained for strain BCSMH006, expressing WzemCherry [14]. No increase in the fluorescence signal was observed when the linker region was removed from the Citrine protein (data not shown) indicating that this region was not impairing fluorescence in pneumococcal bacteria.Figure 1. Fluorescent signals emitted by mCherry, Citrine, CFP and GFP protein fusions are detectable in live S. pneumoniae bacteria. (A) The septal localization of Wze protein fusions expressed in the encapsulated ATCC6314 strain is shown for Wze-mCherry (strain BCSMH015), Wze-Citrine (strain BCSMH016), Wze-CFP (strain BCSMH029), Wze-GFP (strain BCSMH030). No comparable signal was detected in cells containing an empty vector (strain BCSMH052) visualized using appropriate filters for each fluorescent protein. (B) Three cultures of unencapsulated R36A strain expressing Wze-mCherry (strain BCSMH006, red dots), Wze-Citrine (strain BCSMH007, yellow dots) and Wze-CFP (strain BCSMH035, blue dots) were prepared for fluorescence microscopy observation as described in the Materials and Methods section, mixed on the same slide, and visualized using appropriate filters for each fluorescent protein. Fluorescence intensity was plotted, showing that the signals from each protein do not overlap. A representative image is shown at the bottom of the figure. Exposure times were 5 sec. Scale bar: 2 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055049.gExpression of Fluorescent Proteins in S.pneumoniaeFigure 2. Fluorescent signals emitted by untagged mCherry, Citrine, CFP and GFP proteins are not detectable. The median intensity, with 25 (white error bars) and 75 (black error bars) interquartile range (in arbitrary units) of the fluorescence signal in unencapsulated bacteria expressing Wze-mCherry (strain BCSMH006), mCherry (strain BCSMH032), Wze-Citrine (strain BCSMH007), Citrine (strain BCSMH033), Wze-CFP (strain BCSMH033), CFP (strain BCSMH034), Wze-GFP (strain BCSMH035) and 1662274 GFP (strain BCSMH036), is plotted. At least 100 cells of each strain were quantified. Representative images of each strain are shown at the 1326631 bottom. Scale bar: 2 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055049.gAs a second hypothesis, we asked whether there was a specific nucleotide sequence present in the coding sequence of Wze that increased protein expression in the Wze-Citrine fusion. This was based on the fact that the 59 coding region of the mRNA, immediately after the start codon, has been proposed to have an important role in ensuring protein translation in bacteria. This effect seems to be more dependent on the predicted mRNA secondary structure of this region than on codon usage bias or GC contents [21]. In order to identify that putative nucleotide sequence, pneumococcal bacteria were transformed with plasmids encoding different truncated forms of Wze-Citrine fusion (Fig. 4). Deletion of the central region (amino acids 51?77, strain BCSJC004) or the C-terminal region (amino acids 178?27, strain BCSJC005).

Orescence in S. pneumoniae. To answer this question we constructed a

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