IsFigure 4. Relative transcript abundances of CvHsps of different developmental stage under thermal stress. The quantity of CvHsp mRNA is normalized to the abundance of Cv18SrRNA. Subsequently, the normalized value of each CvHsp is divided by the amount of the corresponding CvHsp at 24uC of each developmental stage, respectively. Columns topped by different letters indicate significantly different means within the relative transcript abundances of a given CvHsp gene under different temperatures by ANOVA analysis (p,0.05). A-G represents first-instar larva, early second-instar larva, later second-instar larva, third-instar larva, pupa, female adult and male adult, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059721.gdivided by the amount of CvHsp40 at 24uC of the corresponding developmental stage (Fig. 5). The transcriptional pattern of four CvHsps indicated that 27uC was a “turn-over” temperature, where the transcriptional levels of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 at different developmental get PHCCC stages were significantly lower than those at 24uC, 32uC, 37uC and 42uC, except for the lowest transcript abundance of CvHsc70 of first-instar larva, early-instar larva and female adult were appear at 32uC. When the temperature was higher than 27uC, and 32uC for CvHsc70 of above developmental stages, the transcriptional levels of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 of each developmental stage were increased obviously in response to thermal stress (Fig. 4), suggesting that the 14636-12-5 biological activity transcripts of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 were significantly induced by heat stress. Here, we also noticed that the transcriptional peak of CvHsp40 in male in response to different heat stress showed at 37uC not 42uC (Fig. 4G). CvHsp90 had the highest transcriptional level at first- and early second-instar larvae (Figure 5A ) while CvHsp70 had its highest transcriptional level at third-instar larval, pupal and adult stages (Figure 5D ) among four tested CvHsps under all test temperatures. However, there was no such clear transcriptional pattern of CvHsp70 or CvHsp90 in later second-instar larva (Figure 5C). Additionally, the sensitivities of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 to the heat treatment during different developmental stages were different from each other. When the temperatures increased from 27uC to 42uC, the transcriptional levels of four CvHsps were all up-regulated at least 5 folds during larval and pupal stages (Fig. 4A ), but displaying irregular patterns of heat sensitivity. When comparing the upregulated ratios of the transcript abundances of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 or CvHsp90 between female and male adults (Fig. 4 F ), CvHsp70 and CvHsc70 were greater in females (91.9 folds and 93.9 folds) than in males (47 folds and 69.4 folds) while CvHsp40 was smaller in females (11.7 folds) than in males (18.9 folds), but CvHsp90 exhibited no differences between males and females.DiscussionHeat shock proteins are key elements of the stress response system at the cellular level in all organisms. They are up-regulated in cells exposed to a wide variety of abiotic stressors, such as heat shock, osmotic stress, and environmental contaminants (heavy metals, pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and biotic (bacteria and virus) factors [9]. In the present study, using RACE or direct PCR with primers designed on the basis of conserved Hsp genes sequences, we identified four genes encoding Hsps, including CvHsp90, CvHsp70, CvHsc70 and CvHsp40, in C.IsFigure 4. Relative transcript abundances of CvHsps of different developmental stage under thermal stress. The quantity of CvHsp mRNA is normalized to the abundance of Cv18SrRNA. Subsequently, the normalized value of each CvHsp is divided by the amount of the corresponding CvHsp at 24uC of each developmental stage, respectively. Columns topped by different letters indicate significantly different means within the relative transcript abundances of a given CvHsp gene under different temperatures by ANOVA analysis (p,0.05). A-G represents first-instar larva, early second-instar larva, later second-instar larva, third-instar larva, pupa, female adult and male adult, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059721.gdivided by the amount of CvHsp40 at 24uC of the corresponding developmental stage (Fig. 5). The transcriptional pattern of four CvHsps indicated that 27uC was a “turn-over” temperature, where the transcriptional levels of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 at different developmental stages were significantly lower than those at 24uC, 32uC, 37uC and 42uC, except for the lowest transcript abundance of CvHsc70 of first-instar larva, early-instar larva and female adult were appear at 32uC. When the temperature was higher than 27uC, and 32uC for CvHsc70 of above developmental stages, the transcriptional levels of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 of each developmental stage were increased obviously in response to thermal stress (Fig. 4), suggesting that the transcripts of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 were significantly induced by heat stress. Here, we also noticed that the transcriptional peak of CvHsp40 in male in response to different heat stress showed at 37uC not 42uC (Fig. 4G). CvHsp90 had the highest transcriptional level at first- and early second-instar larvae (Figure 5A ) while CvHsp70 had its highest transcriptional level at third-instar larval, pupal and adult stages (Figure 5D ) among four tested CvHsps under all test temperatures. However, there was no such clear transcriptional pattern of CvHsp70 or CvHsp90 in later second-instar larva (Figure 5C). Additionally, the sensitivities of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90 to the heat treatment during different developmental stages were different from each other. When the temperatures increased from 27uC to 42uC, the transcriptional levels of four CvHsps were all up-regulated at least 5 folds during larval and pupal stages (Fig. 4A ), but displaying irregular patterns of heat sensitivity. When comparing the upregulated ratios of the transcript abundances of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 or CvHsp90 between female and male adults (Fig. 4 F ), CvHsp70 and CvHsc70 were greater in females (91.9 folds and 93.9 folds) than in males (47 folds and 69.4 folds) while CvHsp40 was smaller in females (11.7 folds) than in males (18.9 folds), but CvHsp90 exhibited no differences between males and females.DiscussionHeat shock proteins are key elements of the stress response system at the cellular level in all organisms. They are up-regulated in cells exposed to a wide variety of abiotic stressors, such as heat shock, osmotic stress, and environmental contaminants (heavy metals, pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and biotic (bacteria and virus) factors [9]. In the present study, using RACE or direct PCR with primers designed on the basis of conserved Hsp genes sequences, we identified four genes encoding Hsps, including CvHsp90, CvHsp70, CvHsc70 and CvHsp40, in C.

IsFigure 4. Relative transcript abundances of CvHsps of different developmental stage under

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