Ne.0047012.gexpression led to growth inhibition of NSCLC cell lines [22]. Importantly, we have found that decreased WNT7A expression positively correlates with tumor progression. A statistically significant correlation exists between the WNT7A hypermethylation status and some of the clinical-pathological characteristics. The WNT7A gene is more frequently methylated in tumors at advanced stages (III V) and high nuclear grades (3?) than in tumors at early stages (I I) and low nuclear grades (1?) of clear cell RCC (Table 2). Similar data were demonstrated in OSCC where methylation of the WNT7A gene is characteristic of tumors at advanced stages [26]. At the same time, we did notdetect any statistically significant difference of frequency of microsatellite marker loss and any clinical-pathological characteristics. Based on our data we assume that the WNT7A gene could be a potential tumor suppressor gene of clear cell RCC. To support this possibility the tumor suppressor properties of the WNT7A gene in RCC cell lines were investigated. For this purpose, the WNT7A gene was re-expressed in RCC cell lines A498 and KRC/Y. This led to a significant purchase HIF-2��-IN-1 reduction in colony number in both cell lines. These findings are similar to data obtained previously concerning re-expression of WNT7A in NSCLC [21,22]. In addition, re-Figure 4. Suppressive effect of WNT7A gene re-expression in RCC cell lines. Effect of WNT7A gene re-expression (A) on colony formation (B) for the A498, KRC/Y cell lines, and (C) cell proliferation assays for the A498 cell line; M ?marker, 1 and 2?A498 cells were transfected by emptypcDNA3.1 and WNT7A-pcDNA3.1 vectors, 3 and 4?KRC/Y cells were transfected by empty-pcDNA3.1 and WNT7A-pcDNA3.1 vectors, NC ?negative control (H20). All experiments were performed in triplicate. Representative results are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047012.gWNT7A Inactivated in Clear Cell RCCexpression of WNT7A significantly reduced the proliferation rate of the A498 cell line. Thus, the WNT7A gene does indeed possess tumor suppressor properties in RCCs. In summary, genetic and epigenetic alterations play a key role in silencing of the WNT7A gene in clear cell RCC. Moreover, restoration of WNT7A expression inhibits the growth of RCC cell lines. Therefore, we propose that inactivation of the WNT7A gene may play an important role in the development of clear cell RCC.AcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. S.A. Kravchenko for technical support with automated laser fluorescence system. We thank Dr. Yu Kudryavets (R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, National Academy of Science, Kyiv, Ukraine) for kindly providing us the A498 cell line. We thank Dr. Anne-Lise Haenni for critical reading of this manuscript.Supporting InformationTableAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: AGK SMK VIK. Performed the experiments: AGK LAS SMK. Analyzed the data: AGK SMK LAS ERZ AVR EVK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: VVG AMR YMZ EVK. Wrote the paper: AGK SMK.characteristics and methylation, LOH, expression status of the WNT7A gene in clear cell RCC purchase 113-79-1 samples. (DOC)S1 Clinical-pathological
The neuroendocrine response to stress is highly conserved among vertebrates and essential to reestablish homeostasis [1]. The principal stress hormones, epinephrine and glucocorticoid, have critical functions in the stress adaptation process [2]. The fight-or-flight response involves the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.Ne.0047012.gexpression led to growth inhibition of NSCLC cell lines [22]. Importantly, we have found that decreased WNT7A expression positively correlates with tumor progression. A statistically significant correlation exists between the WNT7A hypermethylation status and some of the clinical-pathological characteristics. The WNT7A gene is more frequently methylated in tumors at advanced stages (III V) and high nuclear grades (3?) than in tumors at early stages (I I) and low nuclear grades (1?) of clear cell RCC (Table 2). Similar data were demonstrated in OSCC where methylation of the WNT7A gene is characteristic of tumors at advanced stages [26]. At the same time, we did notdetect any statistically significant difference of frequency of microsatellite marker loss and any clinical-pathological characteristics. Based on our data we assume that the WNT7A gene could be a potential tumor suppressor gene of clear cell RCC. To support this possibility the tumor suppressor properties of the WNT7A gene in RCC cell lines were investigated. For this purpose, the WNT7A gene was re-expressed in RCC cell lines A498 and KRC/Y. This led to a significant reduction in colony number in both cell lines. These findings are similar to data obtained previously concerning re-expression of WNT7A in NSCLC [21,22]. In addition, re-Figure 4. Suppressive effect of WNT7A gene re-expression in RCC cell lines. Effect of WNT7A gene re-expression (A) on colony formation (B) for the A498, KRC/Y cell lines, and (C) cell proliferation assays for the A498 cell line; M ?marker, 1 and 2?A498 cells were transfected by emptypcDNA3.1 and WNT7A-pcDNA3.1 vectors, 3 and 4?KRC/Y cells were transfected by empty-pcDNA3.1 and WNT7A-pcDNA3.1 vectors, NC ?negative control (H20). All experiments were performed in triplicate. Representative results are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047012.gWNT7A Inactivated in Clear Cell RCCexpression of WNT7A significantly reduced the proliferation rate of the A498 cell line. Thus, the WNT7A gene does indeed possess tumor suppressor properties in RCCs. In summary, genetic and epigenetic alterations play a key role in silencing of the WNT7A gene in clear cell RCC. Moreover, restoration of WNT7A expression inhibits the growth of RCC cell lines. Therefore, we propose that inactivation of the WNT7A gene may play an important role in the development of clear cell RCC.AcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. S.A. Kravchenko for technical support with automated laser fluorescence system. We thank Dr. Yu Kudryavets (R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, National Academy of Science, Kyiv, Ukraine) for kindly providing us the A498 cell line. We thank Dr. Anne-Lise Haenni for critical reading of this manuscript.Supporting InformationTableAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: AGK SMK VIK. Performed the experiments: AGK LAS SMK. Analyzed the data: AGK SMK LAS ERZ AVR EVK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: VVG AMR YMZ EVK. Wrote the paper: AGK SMK.characteristics and methylation, LOH, expression status of the WNT7A gene in clear cell RCC samples. (DOC)S1 Clinical-pathological
The neuroendocrine response to stress is highly conserved among vertebrates and essential to reestablish homeostasis [1]. The principal stress hormones, epinephrine and glucocorticoid, have critical functions in the stress adaptation process [2]. The fight-or-flight response involves the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

Ne.0047012.gexpression led to growth inhibition of NSCLC cell lines [22]. Importantly

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