With the provided supplements. Culture medium was refreshed every three days. Aphidicolin, purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA), was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).are rapidly end-joined [22]. On the other hand, it has been recently discovered that hyper-condensation of chromatin during mitosis enhances DNA breakage in some fragile 25033180 sites [22]. During mitosis, pericentromeric chromatin is known to be highly condensed. It is possible that this specific feature of pericentromeric chromatin may lead to preferential DNA rupture in pericentromeric regions during mitosis. The broken chromatids in pericentromeric regions may be more difficult to repair through end-joining than non-pericentromeric ends, particularly in cells with defect in DNA damage repair. The un-rejoined broken chromatids could be the source for further rearrangement at a later time after being propagated into daughter cells, or remain unrepaired until the next S-phase. The duplicated chromatids with pericentromeric rearrangement or breaks were revealed as chromosomal type pericentromeric rearrangements or breaks in the subsequent metaphases. HPV16 E6 is known to inactivate p53, which plays important roles in DNA damage repair. In addition, it was shown that HPV16 E6-expressing cells had lower S-phase recovery rates after DNA damage [42]. Our data in this study (Figure S4) also confirmed that HPV16 E6E7hTERT-expressing cells were 15900046 deficient in get 94-09-7 recovering from replication stress-induced S-phase arrest when compared with hTERT-expressing counterparts. HPV16 E6 has been also shown to impair G2 checkpoint [43]. The above information together may, at least in part, explain our finding that pericentromeric rearrangements became the predominant type of chromosome aberrations in the subsequent generations of HPV16 E6E7-expressing cells.Metaphase Preparation, Telomere Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Spectral KaryotypingFor detailed chromosome aberration analysis, the metaphases were enriched by treatment with 0.03 mg/ml colcemid (SigmaAldrich) for 8 h before cell harvest. Detailed methodologies for chromosome spreading were previous described [44]. Telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) were performed as reported previously [30]. Centromere FISH was performed as reported [16] by using FITC-labeled pancentromere DNA probes (Cambio Ltd., Cambridge, UK). K162 OneCentromeric Instability after Replication StressFigure 6. Immunofluorescene staining of centromeres and c-H2AX. Typical examples of co-immunostaning of centromeres (red) and c-H2AX (green). DNA was stained blue. Arrows indicate the large c-H2AX foci juxtaposed to centromeres. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048576.ghundred metaphases were analyzed for detailed chromosome aberrations using SKY for each sample or time point.dase-conjugated mouse or goat IgG, and the blots were visualized by the enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting system (Amersham).Scoring of Chromosome AberrationsNomenclature of chromosome aberrations followed the recommendations of International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature [45]. Chromosome aberrations were generally classified as chromosomal type or chromatid type aberrations. A chromosomal type aberration was scored when it involved both chromatids of a single chromosome at the same locus. A chromatid type aberration was scored when it involved only one chromatid at a given locus of a chromosome. Centromeric regions were identified.With the provided supplements. Culture medium was refreshed every three days. Aphidicolin, purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA), was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).are rapidly end-joined [22]. On the other hand, it has been recently discovered that hyper-condensation of chromatin during mitosis enhances DNA breakage in some fragile 25033180 sites [22]. During mitosis, pericentromeric chromatin is known to be highly condensed. It is possible that this specific feature of pericentromeric chromatin may lead to preferential DNA rupture in pericentromeric regions during mitosis. The broken chromatids in pericentromeric regions may be more difficult to repair through end-joining than non-pericentromeric ends, particularly in cells with defect in DNA damage repair. The un-rejoined broken chromatids could be the source for further rearrangement at a later time after being propagated into daughter cells, or remain unrepaired until the next S-phase. The duplicated chromatids with pericentromeric rearrangement or breaks were revealed as chromosomal type pericentromeric rearrangements or breaks in the subsequent metaphases. HPV16 E6 is known to inactivate p53, which plays important roles in DNA damage repair. In addition, it was shown that HPV16 E6-expressing cells had lower S-phase recovery rates after DNA damage [42]. Our data in this study (Figure S4) also confirmed that HPV16 E6E7hTERT-expressing cells were 15900046 deficient in recovering from replication stress-induced S-phase arrest when compared with hTERT-expressing counterparts. HPV16 E6 has been also shown to impair G2 checkpoint [43]. The above information together may, at least in part, explain our finding that pericentromeric rearrangements became the predominant type of chromosome aberrations in the subsequent generations of HPV16 E6E7-expressing cells.Metaphase Preparation, Telomere Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Spectral KaryotypingFor detailed chromosome aberration analysis, the metaphases were enriched by treatment with 0.03 mg/ml colcemid (SigmaAldrich) for 8 h before cell harvest. Detailed methodologies for chromosome spreading were previous described [44]. Telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) were performed as reported previously [30]. Centromere FISH was performed as reported [16] by using FITC-labeled pancentromere DNA probes (Cambio Ltd., Cambridge, UK). OneCentromeric Instability after Replication StressFigure 6. Immunofluorescene staining of centromeres and c-H2AX. Typical examples of co-immunostaning of centromeres (red) and c-H2AX (green). DNA was stained blue. Arrows indicate the large c-H2AX foci juxtaposed to centromeres. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048576.ghundred metaphases were analyzed for detailed chromosome aberrations using SKY for each sample or time point.dase-conjugated mouse or goat IgG, and the blots were visualized by the enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting system (Amersham).Scoring of Chromosome AberrationsNomenclature of chromosome aberrations followed the recommendations of International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature [45]. Chromosome aberrations were generally classified as chromosomal type or chromatid type aberrations. A chromosomal type aberration was scored when it involved both chromatids of a single chromosome at the same locus. A chromatid type aberration was scored when it involved only one chromatid at a given locus of a chromosome. Centromeric regions were identified.

With the provided supplements. Culture medium was refreshed every three days.

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