N 9 of mouse Slc27a4, the wild-type genomic sequence at the 59-exon/intron boundary is 59-CAGGTctGc. Six of these nine nucleotides match the consensus. In the pigskin mutant, the change of A to T at position 22 leaves only 5 nucleotides that match the consensus. Our findings imply that this change is sufficient to prevent effective use of this splice site. The “pigskin” mutant mice display a comparable phenotype to the wrfr and Fatp4 knockout mice described in previous studies [10,12]. However, the wrfr mutation was caused by a 230 bp retrotransposon insertion into Exon3 and the knockout mice weregenerated by deleting a genomic fragment containing exon3. Thus, the “pigskin” mice may be particularly useful to develop molecular therapies for IPS patients using targeted gene correction [46]. Since Fatp4 protein 25033180 is detected specifically in suprabasal cells [10] and targeted expression in those cells is sufficient to rescue the mutant phenotype [8], we hypothesize that the basal cell hyperproliferation, the abnormal expression of K6, and the alterations in secondary hair follicle induction in Fatp4 mutants all reflect indirect, non-cell autonomous, responses to the loss of synthesis and release of very 25033180 long chain fatty acid derivatives from the spinous and granular cells. We hypothesize that very long chain fatty acids synthesized by Fatp4 may provide both metabolic and regulatory functions that help to modulate epidermal homeostasis and differentiation. In summary, we have identified a new mouse model for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. The pigskin mutant mice, like most human patients with IPS, have a point mutation in the gene encoding Fatp4. These new mice provide a potential model system in which to study the feasibility of achieving gene therapy in the epidermis using homology-based strategies to correct single base mutations.AcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. Paul A. Watkins from Kennedy Krieger for the Fatp4 antibody, and Dr. Yasuhide Furuta for the BMP4-lacZ reporter mice.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: JT MK DR PO. Performed the experiments: JT MK WH JM DB PO. Analyzed the data: JT MK PO. Wrote the paper: JT PO.
Cataract is a leading cause of blindness, accounting for 50 of blindness worldwide [1]. The cumulative incidence of cataract is strongly age-related and ranges from 2 at ages 45?4 years to 45 at ages 75?5 [1], with purchase 520-26-3 nuclear cataracts accounting for 30 of all age-related cataracts [2]. Surgical removal of the cataractous lens remains the only therapy, yet the National Eye Institute has estimated that a ten-year delay in the onset of cataract would result in a 50 reduction in the prevalence of cataract [3]. Both lens nuclear opacity and nuclear cataract surgery are associated with increased mortality according to the Beaver Dam Eye Study [1] and the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) [4]. Thus, understanding the pathogenesis of age-related nuclear cataracts remains an important goal of vision research that may also provide clues on broader mechanisms of aging. Age-related cataract is strongly related to the accumulation of damage to its long-lived proteins, the crystallins. Major age-related lens protein modifications include deamidation, deamination, 1418741-86-2 site racemization, accumulation of truncation products, accumulation of UV active, fluorescent, and non-UV active protein adducts and crosslinks from glycation, ascorbylation and lipoxidation reactions [5]. Collectively, these modifications c.N 9 of mouse Slc27a4, the wild-type genomic sequence at the 59-exon/intron boundary is 59-CAGGTctGc. Six of these nine nucleotides match the consensus. In the pigskin mutant, the change of A to T at position 22 leaves only 5 nucleotides that match the consensus. Our findings imply that this change is sufficient to prevent effective use of this splice site. The “pigskin” mutant mice display a comparable phenotype to the wrfr and Fatp4 knockout mice described in previous studies [10,12]. However, the wrfr mutation was caused by a 230 bp retrotransposon insertion into Exon3 and the knockout mice weregenerated by deleting a genomic fragment containing exon3. Thus, the “pigskin” mice may be particularly useful to develop molecular therapies for IPS patients using targeted gene correction [46]. Since Fatp4 protein 25033180 is detected specifically in suprabasal cells [10] and targeted expression in those cells is sufficient to rescue the mutant phenotype [8], we hypothesize that the basal cell hyperproliferation, the abnormal expression of K6, and the alterations in secondary hair follicle induction in Fatp4 mutants all reflect indirect, non-cell autonomous, responses to the loss of synthesis and release of very 25033180 long chain fatty acid derivatives from the spinous and granular cells. We hypothesize that very long chain fatty acids synthesized by Fatp4 may provide both metabolic and regulatory functions that help to modulate epidermal homeostasis and differentiation. In summary, we have identified a new mouse model for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. The pigskin mutant mice, like most human patients with IPS, have a point mutation in the gene encoding Fatp4. These new mice provide a potential model system in which to study the feasibility of achieving gene therapy in the epidermis using homology-based strategies to correct single base mutations.AcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. Paul A. Watkins from Kennedy Krieger for the Fatp4 antibody, and Dr. Yasuhide Furuta for the BMP4-lacZ reporter mice.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: JT MK DR PO. Performed the experiments: JT MK WH JM DB PO. Analyzed the data: JT MK PO. Wrote the paper: JT PO.
Cataract is a leading cause of blindness, accounting for 50 of blindness worldwide [1]. The cumulative incidence of cataract is strongly age-related and ranges from 2 at ages 45?4 years to 45 at ages 75?5 [1], with nuclear cataracts accounting for 30 of all age-related cataracts [2]. Surgical removal of the cataractous lens remains the only therapy, yet the National Eye Institute has estimated that a ten-year delay in the onset of cataract would result in a 50 reduction in the prevalence of cataract [3]. Both lens nuclear opacity and nuclear cataract surgery are associated with increased mortality according to the Beaver Dam Eye Study [1] and the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) [4]. Thus, understanding the pathogenesis of age-related nuclear cataracts remains an important goal of vision research that may also provide clues on broader mechanisms of aging. Age-related cataract is strongly related to the accumulation of damage to its long-lived proteins, the crystallins. Major age-related lens protein modifications include deamidation, deamination, racemization, accumulation of truncation products, accumulation of UV active, fluorescent, and non-UV active protein adducts and crosslinks from glycation, ascorbylation and lipoxidation reactions [5]. Collectively, these modifications c.

N 9 of mouse Slc27a4, the wild-type genomic sequence at the

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