Skeleton Transcription and RNA metabolism Protein phosphatase Cation homeostasis Anti-microbial response Negative regulation of myeloid cell differentiation B-cell, T-cell, and Toll-like receptor signaling 12 hpi Cytoskeleton: intermediate filament Keratin, intermediate filament DNA replication DNA repair Cytoskeleton organization: intermediate filament Epidermis development, hair follicle cycle Inflammation, chemotaxis Epithelial development Cell cycle Nucleolus, membrane-enclosed lumen Clusters from downregulated genes 6 hpi Secreted: signal peptide, disulfide bond, glycosylation Armadillo repeat-containing proteins Von Willebrand factor C domain G protein signaling domain Extracellular matrix Skeletal system: ossification Cell and cell-cell adhesion Blood vessel development Transmembrane, glycoprotein Golgi, cytoplasmic vesicle, clathrin coated vesicle doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047301.t002 12 hpi Skeletal system development Regulation of transcription, DNA binding Internal side of plasma membrane, organelle organizationAt 12 hpi, the only gene ontology cluster related to the immune response was inflammation and chemotaxis. The genes in this cluster were cytokines, chemokines, and related molecules. Chemokines are small peptides that are potent activators and chemoattractants for leukocytes, and play an important role at the sites of inflammation. Overall, nymphal tick feeding induced the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor 1 chemical information expression of chemokines specific for neutrophil (Cxcl1 and 5) and monocyte (Ccl2, 6, 7, and 12) recruitment. In addition, Cxcl14 was upregulated, a chemokine specific for dendritic cell precursors [32] but without a defined function in the skin [33]. Increasing evidence purchase SR3029 suggests that small inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, prostaglandins, platelet activating factor, and complement initiate chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. This initial response is amplified by cytokine production that drives chemokine synthesis [34]. Our results support the upregulation of IL-1b, IL-6, and C1qb that may interact with the chemokine profile to maintain and amplify the chemotactic response. While the sequence of events could not be defined in this study, the gene expression profile strongly suggests the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the bite site.The most significant pathway in this dataset was related to acute inflammation and immune cell recruitment, supporting the DAVID analysis. The interactions between genes in this pathway were mapped over time (Figure 2), showing temporal increases in gene modulation in this pathway. In addition, all the genes modulated at any time point in the inflammatory response pathway were plotted to show temporal changes in gene expression (Figure 3). We believe this data suggests early tick feeding is characterized by an inflammatory response from the earliest time point that intensifies as feeding continues.Validation of 1326631 Microarray DataBased on the significance of chemotaxis and inflammation in the gene ontology analyses, we chose a list of chemokines, cytokines, inflammatory molecules, and genes in the ontology term “viral reproduction” (GO:0016032) for validation by realtime PCR (Table 1). Specific validation targets were chosen by significant fold change in the array data and/or previously identified genes of interest in host anti-tick responses [13]. All significantly modulated genes at any time point in the validation experiment are shown in figure 4. While exact fold changes did not correlate, trends.Skeleton Transcription and RNA metabolism Protein phosphatase Cation homeostasis Anti-microbial response Negative regulation of myeloid cell differentiation B-cell, T-cell, and Toll-like receptor signaling 12 hpi Cytoskeleton: intermediate filament Keratin, intermediate filament DNA replication DNA repair Cytoskeleton organization: intermediate filament Epidermis development, hair follicle cycle Inflammation, chemotaxis Epithelial development Cell cycle Nucleolus, membrane-enclosed lumen Clusters from downregulated genes 6 hpi Secreted: signal peptide, disulfide bond, glycosylation Armadillo repeat-containing proteins Von Willebrand factor C domain G protein signaling domain Extracellular matrix Skeletal system: ossification Cell and cell-cell adhesion Blood vessel development Transmembrane, glycoprotein Golgi, cytoplasmic vesicle, clathrin coated vesicle doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047301.t002 12 hpi Skeletal system development Regulation of transcription, DNA binding Internal side of plasma membrane, organelle organizationAt 12 hpi, the only gene ontology cluster related to the immune response was inflammation and chemotaxis. The genes in this cluster were cytokines, chemokines, and related molecules. Chemokines are small peptides that are potent activators and chemoattractants for leukocytes, and play an important role at the sites of inflammation. Overall, nymphal tick feeding induced the expression of chemokines specific for neutrophil (Cxcl1 and 5) and monocyte (Ccl2, 6, 7, and 12) recruitment. In addition, Cxcl14 was upregulated, a chemokine specific for dendritic cell precursors [32] but without a defined function in the skin [33]. Increasing evidence suggests that small inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, prostaglandins, platelet activating factor, and complement initiate chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. This initial response is amplified by cytokine production that drives chemokine synthesis [34]. Our results support the upregulation of IL-1b, IL-6, and C1qb that may interact with the chemokine profile to maintain and amplify the chemotactic response. While the sequence of events could not be defined in this study, the gene expression profile strongly suggests the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the bite site.The most significant pathway in this dataset was related to acute inflammation and immune cell recruitment, supporting the DAVID analysis. The interactions between genes in this pathway were mapped over time (Figure 2), showing temporal increases in gene modulation in this pathway. In addition, all the genes modulated at any time point in the inflammatory response pathway were plotted to show temporal changes in gene expression (Figure 3). We believe this data suggests early tick feeding is characterized by an inflammatory response from the earliest time point that intensifies as feeding continues.Validation of 1326631 Microarray DataBased on the significance of chemotaxis and inflammation in the gene ontology analyses, we chose a list of chemokines, cytokines, inflammatory molecules, and genes in the ontology term “viral reproduction” (GO:0016032) for validation by realtime PCR (Table 1). Specific validation targets were chosen by significant fold change in the array data and/or previously identified genes of interest in host anti-tick responses [13]. All significantly modulated genes at any time point in the validation experiment are shown in figure 4. While exact fold changes did not correlate, trends.

Skeleton Transcription and RNA metabolism Protein phosphatase Cation homeostasis Anti-microbial response

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