Activity phosphofructokinase Glycogen phosphorylase Phosphatase, MAPK inhibitor phosphatase Phosphatase catalytic subunit Regulation of Ppp1cDevelopment (7 GO terms)Apc Psap Tcf7l2 EyaGlucose metabolism (4 GO terms)Pfkl PygmPhosphatases (1 GO term)Dusp3 Ppm1g Ppp1cb Ppp1r12adoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051478.treported in this paper have been deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) with accession no. GSE40578.Plasmids and Site Directed MutagenesisThe mouse MuRF1 promoter luciferase plasmid which contains 4.4 kb of the 59 upstream MuRF1 promoter region was a gift from S. Shoelson [18]. In silico analysis of transcription factor binding sites in this 4.4 kb MuRF1 promoter region was performed by Clover [19] which identified 3 putative NF-kB sites in the 59 2 kb of the cloned promoter fragment. The 2 kb MuRF1-luc deletion construct was created by cutting the MuRF1-luc plasmid with NheI and SmaI, and ligating blunted ends to remove the 59 2 kb of MuRF1 promoter sequence. This produced a promoter without the 3 putative NF-kB sites. Also using the 4.4 kb MuRF1 promoter, site directed mutagenesis was used to mutate all 3 putative NF-kB sites of MuRF1-luc using PCR primers designed by the QuikChange Primer Design Program (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA). The oligonucleotides were designed in our lab and then made by Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). The target sequences are listed with the NF-kB site underlined and the mutated nucleotides capitalized: kB1 59-caa act ctc agg ttt ctg aaa agt GAG ttt tct agt gac 1662274 aat ccc aaa gag-39, kB2 59- ccc aaa gag cac aga ctt aCT Caa gtt cca gcg cta cca g-39, kB3 59- ccg ccc atg tgg gaa ctt GAG cat ctc acc ctt tga ctt-39. A reaction was performed by mixing 100 ng of each phosphorylated primer, 100 ng MuRF1-luc, 1.25 U PfuUltra High-fidelity DNA polymerase (Agilent), and 20 U Taq DNA ligase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA) and then the PCR was carried out in a thermal cycler set as follows: 95uC for2 min (denature), 30 cycles of 95uC for 50 sec, 60uC for 50 sec, and 68uC for 5 min, and followed by a final incubation at 68uC for 5 min (extension). After DpnI treatment, amplified PCR products were transformed into XL10-Gold Ultracompetent bacteria (Agilent) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The DNA sequences of the wild type MuRF1 reporter, MuRF1 deletant, and the MuRF1 3 kB mutant constructs were verified by Genewiz sequencing services (South Plainfield, NJ).Luciferase AssaySoleus muscles transfected with plasmid DNA were homogenized in 1 mL passive lysis buffer (Promega, Madison, WI). Homogenates were centrifuged at 5,500 g at 4uC for 20 min. Supernatant was collected, diluted 1:20, and mixed with 100 ml luciferase assay reagents (Promega). Luciferase activity was measured by a TD-20/20 illuminometer (Turner Designs Inc), which reflected total muscle luciferase activity.Statistical AnalysisFor RT-qPCR and luciferase activity, a two-tailed independent t-test was performed to determine statistical significance between WB and HU groups. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.A Bcl-3 Network Controls Muscle Lecirelin.html”>MedChemExpress Lecirelin AtrophyFigure 5. Bcl-3 binding profile at Ubr1 and Ate1 genes. (A) An assembly of ChIP-seq data for the Ubr1 (chromosome 2) and (B) Ate1 (chromosome 7) genes, visualized by IGV. In both A and B, the top line is a representation of genomic size and location of the region. Vertical ticks are 500 bp apart. The next rows are labeled as follows: Gene, the graphic for the name, locati.Activity phosphofructokinase Glycogen phosphorylase Phosphatase, MAPK inhibitor phosphatase Phosphatase catalytic subunit Regulation of Ppp1cDevelopment (7 GO terms)Apc Psap Tcf7l2 EyaGlucose metabolism (4 GO terms)Pfkl PygmPhosphatases (1 GO term)Dusp3 Ppm1g Ppp1cb Ppp1r12adoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051478.treported in this paper have been deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) with accession no. GSE40578.Plasmids and Site Directed MutagenesisThe mouse MuRF1 promoter luciferase plasmid which contains 4.4 kb of the 59 upstream MuRF1 promoter region was a gift from S. Shoelson [18]. In silico analysis of transcription factor binding sites in this 4.4 kb MuRF1 promoter region was performed by Clover [19] which identified 3 putative NF-kB sites in the 59 2 kb of the cloned promoter fragment. The 2 kb MuRF1-luc deletion construct was created by cutting the MuRF1-luc plasmid with NheI and SmaI, and ligating blunted ends to remove the 59 2 kb of MuRF1 promoter sequence. This produced a promoter without the 3 putative NF-kB sites. Also using the 4.4 kb MuRF1 promoter, site directed mutagenesis was used to mutate all 3 putative NF-kB sites of MuRF1-luc using PCR primers designed by the QuikChange Primer Design Program (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA). The oligonucleotides were designed in our lab and then made by Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). The target sequences are listed with the NF-kB site underlined and the mutated nucleotides capitalized: kB1 59-caa act ctc agg ttt ctg aaa agt GAG ttt tct agt gac 1662274 aat ccc aaa gag-39, kB2 59- ccc aaa gag cac aga ctt aCT Caa gtt cca gcg cta cca g-39, kB3 59- ccg ccc atg tgg gaa ctt GAG cat ctc acc ctt tga ctt-39. A reaction was performed by mixing 100 ng of each phosphorylated primer, 100 ng MuRF1-luc, 1.25 U PfuUltra High-fidelity DNA polymerase (Agilent), and 20 U Taq DNA ligase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA) and then the PCR was carried out in a thermal cycler set as follows: 95uC for2 min (denature), 30 cycles of 95uC for 50 sec, 60uC for 50 sec, and 68uC for 5 min, and followed by a final incubation at 68uC for 5 min (extension). After DpnI treatment, amplified PCR products were transformed into XL10-Gold Ultracompetent bacteria (Agilent) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The DNA sequences of the wild type MuRF1 reporter, MuRF1 deletant, and the MuRF1 3 kB mutant constructs were verified by Genewiz sequencing services (South Plainfield, NJ).Luciferase AssaySoleus muscles transfected with plasmid DNA were homogenized in 1 mL passive lysis buffer (Promega, Madison, WI). Homogenates were centrifuged at 5,500 g at 4uC for 20 min. Supernatant was collected, diluted 1:20, and mixed with 100 ml luciferase assay reagents (Promega). Luciferase activity was measured by a TD-20/20 illuminometer (Turner Designs Inc), which reflected total muscle luciferase activity.Statistical AnalysisFor RT-qPCR and luciferase activity, a two-tailed independent t-test was performed to determine statistical significance between WB and HU groups. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.A Bcl-3 Network Controls Muscle AtrophyFigure 5. Bcl-3 binding profile at Ubr1 and Ate1 genes. (A) An assembly of ChIP-seq data for the Ubr1 (chromosome 2) and (B) Ate1 (chromosome 7) genes, visualized by IGV. In both A and B, the top line is a representation of genomic size and location of the region. Vertical ticks are 500 bp apart. The next rows are labeled as follows: Gene, the graphic for the name, locati.

Activity phosphofructokinase Glycogen phosphorylase Phosphatase, MAPK inhibitor phosphatase Phosphatase catalytic subunit

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