Cus haplotype is protective against schizophrenia [33]. However, no association with lithium response was revealed with the polymorphism of the (-)-Indolactam V custom synthesis rs2030324 gene [28]. The C allele for rs1491850 was found to be associated with a better response and nonresistance to treatment [34]. Another study found that the C allele for rs1491850 was associated with a better response to SSRIs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (p = 0.002) [35]. Consistent with Gracillin web Kocaba’s findings, our results show that carriers of the C/C genotype exhibit a significantly higher LDAEP, indicating low serotonergic activity. The overall haplotype (rs6265, rs2030324, and rs1491850) frequencies did not differ significantly between low- and highLDAEP groups at Cz and Pz, although the frequency of one 23977191 haplotype (A-C-T) did differ significantly between the low- and high-LDAEP groups at Cz (43 vs. 22 , respectively; p = 0.014). However, we found differences in the frequencies of individual haplotypes (rs2030324 and rs1491850) between the low- and highLDAEP groups at Pz (p = 0.017) (table 2). The numbers of subjects with low LDAEP were more than those with high LDAEP in theTable 2. Haplotype distribution in Pz (rs2030324 and rs1491850).HaplotypeOverall p-valueHaplotype frequencies Low LDAEP High LDAEP 0.42 0.48 0.Permutation p valueC-T T-C T-T0.017*0.55 0.40 0.0.000* 0.108 0.*p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060340.tBDNF Gene and LDAEPC-T haplotype (C genetype for rs2030424 and T genotype for rs1491850), indicating higher central serotonergic activity. Our findings support the previously held notion that the LDAEP is related to a haplotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene [20]. However, the interaction patterns between LDAEP and BDNF polymorphism were not the same. Juckel and collegues [20] suggested that subjects with the BDNF haplotype G(Val)-C-T are characterized by a high LDAEP. This discrepancy can be explained in three ways. First, the interactions might differ with ethnicity. It is well known that the Korean population has a homogeneous blood line, and our results suggest that the LDAEP DNF interaction differs between Koreans and Germans. Second, our study cohort was younger and had a smaller age range (24.0963.23 years; range, 20?2 years) than that of Juckel et al. (43615 years; range, 19?2 years). Although there is no known association between age and LDAEP in major depressive disorder patients [9,10], a gender-specific effect of aging on central 5-HT function has been demonstrated [36]. Third, our results were obtained from a cortical LDAEP source, while theirs was obtained from a tangential LDAEP source. It is known that singleelectrode and dipole-source LDAEPs could differ significantly [37]. Thus, LDAEP results obtained from two different sources should be compared with caution. Our results suggest that BDNF polymorphisms and LDAEP patterns can be used to predict altered serotonergic activity. Val/ Met heterozygous mice were found to display increased depressive-like behaviors and more prominent changes in BDNF levels relative to wild-type mice, with the depressive-like behaviors able to be rescued by acute administration of desipramine [38]. Some researchers have developed heterogeneous BDNF(+/2) knockout models to study depressive-like behaviors in adult mice, due to the early postnatal lethality in homogeneous BDNF(2/2) mice [39]. Lyons and colleagues found that the BDNF(+/2) mice display behavioral abnormalities that are correlated.Cus haplotype is protective against schizophrenia [33]. However, no association with lithium response was revealed with the polymorphism of the rs2030324 gene [28]. The C allele for rs1491850 was found to be associated with a better response and nonresistance to treatment [34]. Another study found that the C allele for rs1491850 was associated with a better response to SSRIs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (p = 0.002) [35]. Consistent with Kocaba’s findings, our results show that carriers of the C/C genotype exhibit a significantly higher LDAEP, indicating low serotonergic activity. The overall haplotype (rs6265, rs2030324, and rs1491850) frequencies did not differ significantly between low- and highLDAEP groups at Cz and Pz, although the frequency of one 23977191 haplotype (A-C-T) did differ significantly between the low- and high-LDAEP groups at Cz (43 vs. 22 , respectively; p = 0.014). However, we found differences in the frequencies of individual haplotypes (rs2030324 and rs1491850) between the low- and highLDAEP groups at Pz (p = 0.017) (table 2). The numbers of subjects with low LDAEP were more than those with high LDAEP in theTable 2. Haplotype distribution in Pz (rs2030324 and rs1491850).HaplotypeOverall p-valueHaplotype frequencies Low LDAEP High LDAEP 0.42 0.48 0.Permutation p valueC-T T-C T-T0.017*0.55 0.40 0.0.000* 0.108 0.*p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060340.tBDNF Gene and LDAEPC-T haplotype (C genetype for rs2030424 and T genotype for rs1491850), indicating higher central serotonergic activity. Our findings support the previously held notion that the LDAEP is related to a haplotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene [20]. However, the interaction patterns between LDAEP and BDNF polymorphism were not the same. Juckel and collegues [20] suggested that subjects with the BDNF haplotype G(Val)-C-T are characterized by a high LDAEP. This discrepancy can be explained in three ways. First, the interactions might differ with ethnicity. It is well known that the Korean population has a homogeneous blood line, and our results suggest that the LDAEP DNF interaction differs between Koreans and Germans. Second, our study cohort was younger and had a smaller age range (24.0963.23 years; range, 20?2 years) than that of Juckel et al. (43615 years; range, 19?2 years). Although there is no known association between age and LDAEP in major depressive disorder patients [9,10], a gender-specific effect of aging on central 5-HT function has been demonstrated [36]. Third, our results were obtained from a cortical LDAEP source, while theirs was obtained from a tangential LDAEP source. It is known that singleelectrode and dipole-source LDAEPs could differ significantly [37]. Thus, LDAEP results obtained from two different sources should be compared with caution. Our results suggest that BDNF polymorphisms and LDAEP patterns can be used to predict altered serotonergic activity. Val/ Met heterozygous mice were found to display increased depressive-like behaviors and more prominent changes in BDNF levels relative to wild-type mice, with the depressive-like behaviors able to be rescued by acute administration of desipramine [38]. Some researchers have developed heterogeneous BDNF(+/2) knockout models to study depressive-like behaviors in adult mice, due to the early postnatal lethality in homogeneous BDNF(2/2) mice [39]. Lyons and colleagues found that the BDNF(+/2) mice display behavioral abnormalities that are correlated.

Cus haplotype is protective against schizophrenia [33]. However, no association with lithium

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