Daily Past smoker, 20 cigarettes daily Past smoker, ,20 cigarettes daily Past occupational exposure Reported asthma or COPD Curry at least once a month Adjusted for significant variables in base model Adjusted further for diet and supplements .049 .045 .018 .018 2.787 2.536 .005 .011 10.627 2.273 0.321 0.023 4.676 13.863 223.081 24.060 4.930 2.215 23.919 22.943 22.131 24.198 21.264 21.014 2.763 27.251 SE t pFVC, litres b SE t pFEV1/FVC, b SE t p,.001 13.451 3.214 ,.001 .371 .4.186 11.,.001 37.323 67.088 1676428 .556 ,.001 1.405 .684 2..58 .2.025 .001 211.57 2.850 4.418 .001 .896 .,.001 2.027 .002 ,.001 215.02 4.030 ,.001 5.769 .83 1.217.541 ,.001 2.189 .032 23.728 4.552 21.450 .013 2.382 .236 2.179 2.827 .125 .737 23.26.003 ,.001 .,.001 64.132 84.134 .,.001 220.25 26.457 2.766 .44 .147 .99 .70 .81 .86 .41 .90 .46 .002 .082 .063 1.299 .2.004 .003 .2.080 .020 2.054 .018 2.153 .072 2.152 .036 2.053 .042 2.033 .033 2.027 .036 2.321 .,.001 .000 .003 .23.112 .600 21.991 .543 27.054 2.120 25.120 1.066 21.105 1.234 21.107 .965 22.346 1.061 27.914 1.25.185 ,.001 23.664 ,.001 23.327 ,.001 24.803 ,.001 2.896 .37 21.147 .25 22.210 .027 26.047 ,.2.010 .026 .024 .,.001 2.009 .051 .21 .31 .45 2.049 .059 .006 .037 .046 .,.001 2.198 ..027 ..025 .1.097 ..27 .1.265 1..522 .2.424 2..015 .*Referenced to: female gender, higher end public or private housing, never smoker, no occupational 25837696 exposure, and less frequent consumptions of fruits and vegetables, milk, fish and curry. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051753.tSome limitations in this cross-sectional study should be noted. Although we attempted to control for the effects of other antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients in the diet and supplements, the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire we used were limited, and did not include total energy intake; a 24 hour dietary recall methodology is preferred but more expensive. However, our analyses of the pulmonary effects for individual dietary and supplementary intakes of other anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory nutrients in the regression models showed in fact that daily supplementary vitamin A/C/E (b = 0.04960.020,p = 0.015), dietary fish intake at least thrice weekly (b = 0.05960.016, p = 0.001), and daily supplementary n3-PUFA (b = 0.07360.032, p = 0.021), were individually associated with FEV1 in the same regression model (data not shown). It may be argued that with cross-sectional results, the observed associations may possibly be explained by dietary change resulting from poor pulmonary function. However, in 194423-15-9 patients with COPD, this is generally expected to result in reduced food intake and undernutrition. Community-living older persons possessing varying levels of pulmonary function include a sub-population ofFigure 1. Adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in one MedChemExpress 166518-60-1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC by levels of curry intake. Footnote: Bars denote standard errors. * P,0.05, ** p,0.01, *** P,0.001 FEV1 and FVC: Estimated marginal means adjusted for gender, age, height, height-squared, housing status, smoking, and history of asthma/COPD. FEV1/FVC: Estimated marginal means adjusted for gender, age, housing status, smoking, and history of asthma/COPD, and occupational exposure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051753.gCurcumin and Pulmonary FunctionFigure 2. Adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)) and FEV1/FVC by curry consumption status among nonsmokers, past smoker and current smokers. Footnote: Bars denote standard err.Daily Past smoker, 20 cigarettes daily Past smoker, ,20 cigarettes daily Past occupational exposure Reported asthma or COPD Curry at least once a month Adjusted for significant variables in base model Adjusted further for diet and supplements .049 .045 .018 .018 2.787 2.536 .005 .011 10.627 2.273 0.321 0.023 4.676 13.863 223.081 24.060 4.930 2.215 23.919 22.943 22.131 24.198 21.264 21.014 2.763 27.251 SE t pFVC, litres b SE t pFEV1/FVC, b SE t p,.001 13.451 3.214 ,.001 .371 .4.186 11.,.001 37.323 67.088 1676428 .556 ,.001 1.405 .684 2..58 .2.025 .001 211.57 2.850 4.418 .001 .896 .,.001 2.027 .002 ,.001 215.02 4.030 ,.001 5.769 .83 1.217.541 ,.001 2.189 .032 23.728 4.552 21.450 .013 2.382 .236 2.179 2.827 .125 .737 23.26.003 ,.001 .,.001 64.132 84.134 .,.001 220.25 26.457 2.766 .44 .147 .99 .70 .81 .86 .41 .90 .46 .002 .082 .063 1.299 .2.004 .003 .2.080 .020 2.054 .018 2.153 .072 2.152 .036 2.053 .042 2.033 .033 2.027 .036 2.321 .,.001 .000 .003 .23.112 .600 21.991 .543 27.054 2.120 25.120 1.066 21.105 1.234 21.107 .965 22.346 1.061 27.914 1.25.185 ,.001 23.664 ,.001 23.327 ,.001 24.803 ,.001 2.896 .37 21.147 .25 22.210 .027 26.047 ,.2.010 .026 .024 .,.001 2.009 .051 .21 .31 .45 2.049 .059 .006 .037 .046 .,.001 2.198 ..027 ..025 .1.097 ..27 .1.265 1..522 .2.424 2..015 .*Referenced to: female gender, higher end public or private housing, never smoker, no occupational 25837696 exposure, and less frequent consumptions of fruits and vegetables, milk, fish and curry. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051753.tSome limitations in this cross-sectional study should be noted. Although we attempted to control for the effects of other antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients in the diet and supplements, the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire we used were limited, and did not include total energy intake; a 24 hour dietary recall methodology is preferred but more expensive. However, our analyses of the pulmonary effects for individual dietary and supplementary intakes of other anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory nutrients in the regression models showed in fact that daily supplementary vitamin A/C/E (b = 0.04960.020,p = 0.015), dietary fish intake at least thrice weekly (b = 0.05960.016, p = 0.001), and daily supplementary n3-PUFA (b = 0.07360.032, p = 0.021), were individually associated with FEV1 in the same regression model (data not shown). It may be argued that with cross-sectional results, the observed associations may possibly be explained by dietary change resulting from poor pulmonary function. However, in patients with COPD, this is generally expected to result in reduced food intake and undernutrition. Community-living older persons possessing varying levels of pulmonary function include a sub-population ofFigure 1. Adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC by levels of curry intake. Footnote: Bars denote standard errors. * P,0.05, ** p,0.01, *** P,0.001 FEV1 and FVC: Estimated marginal means adjusted for gender, age, height, height-squared, housing status, smoking, and history of asthma/COPD. FEV1/FVC: Estimated marginal means adjusted for gender, age, housing status, smoking, and history of asthma/COPD, and occupational exposure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051753.gCurcumin and Pulmonary FunctionFigure 2. Adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)) and FEV1/FVC by curry consumption status among nonsmokers, past smoker and current smokers. Footnote: Bars denote standard err.

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