Reated,Figure 2. CD138+ cells are increased in MLNs and PPs 48 hours post-treatment (hpt) with GRA. Mice (n = 3 mice per group) were administered GRA or vehicle by oral gavage, and cell populations in the MLNs and PPs were analyzed with antibodies to CD11c, CD11b, and CD138. **p,0.01. Error bars are SEM. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049491.gGRA Induces ILF Formationinfected animals compared to animals given vehicle, as before. A similar trend was observed in uninfected animals, although this difference was not as great. These data further support the idea that GRA impacts CD8+ T cells in mucosal ASP-015K custom synthesis inductive tissues. Importantly, changes in CD8+ T cells were not enhanced by repeated GRA doses, suggesting the initial signaling events induced by GRA are of key importance and result in a sustained cellular immune response. LP lymphocytes also were analyzed to determine whether orally delivered GRA could influence immune cell populations at a mucosal effector site. A profound increase in CD19+ B cells was observed in the LP of Anlotinib site GRA-treated mice (Figure 3). Importantly, this increase was observed in both uninfected and infected animals, and there were no differences between the dosing schedules. These data, interpreted in the context of the gene expression data, suggest GRA induces B cell recruitment to the small intestinal mucosa, and does so in the absence of ectopic antigenic stimulus.GRA Induces Formation of B220+ B Cell Clusters Resembling ILFILFs consist of a single B cell follicle surrounded by DC with few scattered T cells [27,28]. In an experiment prompted by gene expression data and demonstrated increases in CD19+ cells in the LP, mice were administered GRA or vehicle, and then mockinfected or infected with rotavirus to determine if ILFs wereinduced by GRA. 18055761 GRA was given one day pre-infection and then again one day post-infection, as before. Intestinal sections were prepared one day following the second dose of GRA, or nine days post-infection and stained for detection of B cells (B220), DCs (CD11c), or T cells (CD3). In ileal sections harvested one day after the second dose of GRA, obvious B220+ cell clusters surrounded by CD11c+ cells, and a few CD3+ T cells were observed (Figure 4). DAPI staining further indicated that villi containing these B220+ cell clusters were shorter and broader than surrounding villi, and typical LP structure was displaced. This cell composition and the morphology of villi where they are located are consistent with mature ILF [27,29]. These structures were not present in tissues from vehicletreated mice. Instead, small areas of CD11c+ cells with few B220+ cells were routinely visible. Estimates of changes in B220+ cell density between GRA-treated and vehicle-treated animals made by measuring mean fluorescent intensity indicated a DMFI .7 fold between the two groups. The smaller structures in vehicletreated mice may be indicative of immature ILF [28,29], and suggest GRA induces ILF maturation and ectopic antigenic stimulus is not required. In sections harvested from infected mice at the early time point, B220+ cells were increased in GRA-treated mice relative to vehicle-treated mice (DMFI .3 fold, Figure 4). B220+ cells also appeared increased in GRA-treated infected mice at nine days, at which time the infection was resolved, although the difference wasFigure 3. GRA induces CD19+ cell accumulation in the lamina propria in uninfected and rotavirus infected mice. Mice (n = 5 mice per group) were administered GRA.Reated,Figure 2. CD138+ cells are increased in MLNs and PPs 48 hours post-treatment (hpt) with GRA. Mice (n = 3 mice per group) were administered GRA or vehicle by oral gavage, and cell populations in the MLNs and PPs were analyzed with antibodies to CD11c, CD11b, and CD138. **p,0.01. Error bars are SEM. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049491.gGRA Induces ILF Formationinfected animals compared to animals given vehicle, as before. A similar trend was observed in uninfected animals, although this difference was not as great. These data further support the idea that GRA impacts CD8+ T cells in mucosal inductive tissues. Importantly, changes in CD8+ T cells were not enhanced by repeated GRA doses, suggesting the initial signaling events induced by GRA are of key importance and result in a sustained cellular immune response. LP lymphocytes also were analyzed to determine whether orally delivered GRA could influence immune cell populations at a mucosal effector site. A profound increase in CD19+ B cells was observed in the LP of GRA-treated mice (Figure 3). Importantly, this increase was observed in both uninfected and infected animals, and there were no differences between the dosing schedules. These data, interpreted in the context of the gene expression data, suggest GRA induces B cell recruitment to the small intestinal mucosa, and does so in the absence of ectopic antigenic stimulus.GRA Induces Formation of B220+ B Cell Clusters Resembling ILFILFs consist of a single B cell follicle surrounded by DC with few scattered T cells [27,28]. In an experiment prompted by gene expression data and demonstrated increases in CD19+ cells in the LP, mice were administered GRA or vehicle, and then mockinfected or infected with rotavirus to determine if ILFs wereinduced by GRA. 18055761 GRA was given one day pre-infection and then again one day post-infection, as before. Intestinal sections were prepared one day following the second dose of GRA, or nine days post-infection and stained for detection of B cells (B220), DCs (CD11c), or T cells (CD3). In ileal sections harvested one day after the second dose of GRA, obvious B220+ cell clusters surrounded by CD11c+ cells, and a few CD3+ T cells were observed (Figure 4). DAPI staining further indicated that villi containing these B220+ cell clusters were shorter and broader than surrounding villi, and typical LP structure was displaced. This cell composition and the morphology of villi where they are located are consistent with mature ILF [27,29]. These structures were not present in tissues from vehicletreated mice. Instead, small areas of CD11c+ cells with few B220+ cells were routinely visible. Estimates of changes in B220+ cell density between GRA-treated and vehicle-treated animals made by measuring mean fluorescent intensity indicated a DMFI .7 fold between the two groups. The smaller structures in vehicletreated mice may be indicative of immature ILF [28,29], and suggest GRA induces ILF maturation and ectopic antigenic stimulus is not required. In sections harvested from infected mice at the early time point, B220+ cells were increased in GRA-treated mice relative to vehicle-treated mice (DMFI .3 fold, Figure 4). B220+ cells also appeared increased in GRA-treated infected mice at nine days, at which time the infection was resolved, although the difference wasFigure 3. GRA induces CD19+ cell accumulation in the lamina propria in uninfected and rotavirus infected mice. Mice (n = 5 mice per group) were administered GRA.

Reated,Figure 2. CD138+ cells are increased in MLNs and PPs 48 hours

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