Milarity HDAC-IN-3 between the gene expression profiles. Colors can be interpreted using the scale bar. Numbers in parentheses denote the inflammation scores of the biopsies after H E histological evaluation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046440.gDistribution of gene transcripts between periodontitisaffected and 374913-63-0 healthy gingival tissuesA total of 22 122 different mRNA transcripts were expressed in the periodontitis-affected and healthy gingival tissue samples. Among these transcripts, 1375 were unique to the periodontitisaffected tissue samples whereas 511 genes were uniquely transcribed in healthy gingival tissues (Fig. 3). KEGG enrichment analysis using WebGestalt [24] was performed among the unique genes for the periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues which revealed several regulated pathways indicative of inflammation for the periodontitis-affected condition (Table 2 and Table S1). In contrast, in the healthy gingival tissues, regulated pathways indicated a non-inflammatory profile among the unique genes, as demonstrated in Table 3 and Table S1.affected sites from different patients showed a more similar gene expression pattern than healthy gingival tissues from the same patient. Clustering according to individual, where the paired healthy and periodontitis-affected biopsies cluster together, was only observed for patient 6 and 7. However, the biopsies showed a general trend of clustering according to the degree of inflammation as assessed by H E staining (Table 1), except for sample 7H, sample 2H and an outlier sample 1H, which clustered separately. There was also a trend of forming larger clusters depending on sequence run, but paired biopsies (periodontits-affected and healthy) from each patient were always analyzed in the same sequence run.Differential gene expression between periodontitisaffected and healthy gingival tissuesDifferential gene expression between periodontitis-affected and healthy gingival tissues was analyzed using read counts for each gene with the DeSeq package [22]. The analysis revealed a total of 453 significantly (adj p,0.01) differentially expressed genes. Additional analyses of genes expressed in periodontitis-affectedClustering of biopsiesUnsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed on all gene transcripts having a median read count above a cutoff level set to 0.3 read counts per feature, to exclude expression due to spurious transcription (Fig. 4). The gingival tissues from periodontitisGene Expression in Periodontitisgingiva, showed that 381 genes were upregulated, whereas 72 genes were shown to be down-regulated (Fig. 5, Table S2).Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genesInvestigation of functional associations of gene expression changes in the tissue samples was performed using WebGestalt. Gene ontology (GO) Biological process was used for enrichment analysis. Significant gene enrichments (p,0.05) as well as their parent terms are demonstrated in Fig. 6. Several GO categories were over-represented among genes differentially expressed in periodontitis-affected versus healthy gingival tissues. The categories were mainly indicative of immune and inflammatory responses. Further enrichment analysis regarding Molecular function and Cellular components are provided in the supplementary data (Table S3).Figure 5. Volcano plot displaying differential expression. Differential gene expression (adj p,0.01) between periodontitis-affected and healthy gingival tissues. The y axis corresponds to.Milarity between the gene expression profiles. Colors can be interpreted using the scale bar. Numbers in parentheses denote the inflammation scores of the biopsies after H E histological evaluation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046440.gDistribution of gene transcripts between periodontitisaffected and healthy gingival tissuesA total of 22 122 different mRNA transcripts were expressed in the periodontitis-affected and healthy gingival tissue samples. Among these transcripts, 1375 were unique to the periodontitisaffected tissue samples whereas 511 genes were uniquely transcribed in healthy gingival tissues (Fig. 3). KEGG enrichment analysis using WebGestalt [24] was performed among the unique genes for the periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues which revealed several regulated pathways indicative of inflammation for the periodontitis-affected condition (Table 2 and Table S1). In contrast, in the healthy gingival tissues, regulated pathways indicated a non-inflammatory profile among the unique genes, as demonstrated in Table 3 and Table S1.affected sites from different patients showed a more similar gene expression pattern than healthy gingival tissues from the same patient. Clustering according to individual, where the paired healthy and periodontitis-affected biopsies cluster together, was only observed for patient 6 and 7. However, the biopsies showed a general trend of clustering according to the degree of inflammation as assessed by H E staining (Table 1), except for sample 7H, sample 2H and an outlier sample 1H, which clustered separately. There was also a trend of forming larger clusters depending on sequence run, but paired biopsies (periodontits-affected and healthy) from each patient were always analyzed in the same sequence run.Differential gene expression between periodontitisaffected and healthy gingival tissuesDifferential gene expression between periodontitis-affected and healthy gingival tissues was analyzed using read counts for each gene with the DeSeq package [22]. The analysis revealed a total of 453 significantly (adj p,0.01) differentially expressed genes. Additional analyses of genes expressed in periodontitis-affectedClustering of biopsiesUnsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed on all gene transcripts having a median read count above a cutoff level set to 0.3 read counts per feature, to exclude expression due to spurious transcription (Fig. 4). The gingival tissues from periodontitisGene Expression in Periodontitisgingiva, showed that 381 genes were upregulated, whereas 72 genes were shown to be down-regulated (Fig. 5, Table S2).Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genesInvestigation of functional associations of gene expression changes in the tissue samples was performed using WebGestalt. Gene ontology (GO) Biological process was used for enrichment analysis. Significant gene enrichments (p,0.05) as well as their parent terms are demonstrated in Fig. 6. Several GO categories were over-represented among genes differentially expressed in periodontitis-affected versus healthy gingival tissues. The categories were mainly indicative of immune and inflammatory responses. Further enrichment analysis regarding Molecular function and Cellular components are provided in the supplementary data (Table S3).Figure 5. Volcano plot displaying differential expression. Differential gene expression (adj p,0.01) between periodontitis-affected and healthy gingival tissues. The y axis corresponds to.

Milarity between the gene expression profiles. Colors can be interpreted using

About author

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.