Tivities, are crucial for the diagnosis of dementia [2]. In general, the course of AD begins with the impairment of memory and executive functions followed by the gradual involvement of other functions, including complex visual disturbance [3,4]. Visuospatial function in AD can be impaired at the beginning of the disease, declining gradually with the progression of the disease, and can lead to visual agnosia [5]. The visuospatial deficits appear primarily as difficulties with reading, problems in discriminating form and color, an inability to perceive contrast, difficulties in visual spatial orientation and motion detection, agnosia and difficulty in developing visual strategies [6]. These deficits are related to the presence os neuropathology in the visual association cortex [4]. Katz and Rimmer [7] observed numerous plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the visual association areas in patientswithout primary visual deficits, which may underlie these deficits. The assessment of these deficits is important in providing more diagnostic information for dementia and new perspectives for intervention. Visuospatial function involves identification of a stimulus and its location. The tasks of identifying and locating objects activate different cortical areas, such as Brodmann area 5 of the superior parietal lobe, the parieto-occipital junction and the premotor areas [7,8,9]. As well as these tasks activate distinct neural circuits that project from the striate cortex and to the occipitotemporal (ventral pathway) and occipitoparietal (dorsal pathway) cortices, respectively [10,11]. The 23148522 ventral pathway acts in the visual Title Loaded From File recognition of objects, whereas the dorsal pathway acts in the recognition of space [12]. Most neuropsychological tests that evaluate visuospatial function require other cognitive skills [13]. For example, the Cubes test (Title Loaded From File WAIS-III), Rey Complex Figure test, and the clock drawing test require visuoconstructive skills [2], and Hooper’s Test requires analysis and visual synthesis. However, some tests assess only visual orientation and consist of finding objects in space. Some testsVisuospatial Function in Early Alzheimer’s Diseaseinvolve tasks that assess visual perception and the spatial discrimination of position [8], such as the cancellation tests and the Judgment of Line Orientation test. Among these latter methods is the Visual Object and Space Perception (VOSP) battery [14,15]. The VOSP battery evaluates space and object perception, and the battery proceeds from the assumption that these perceptions are functionally independent [8]. The subtests require simple responses, and each of them focuses on one component of visual perception, while minimizing the involvement of other cognitive skills [15]. The VOSP battery seems to be sensitive to changes in visuospatial function in various diseases, e.g., posterior cortical atrophy [16] and Lewy body dementia [17]. Additionally, the VOSP has been reported to detect a lack of impairment in visuospatial functions in Huntington’s disease patients [12] and patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes [18]. Some studies were developed with elderly people and patients with dementia to assess visuospatial function with the VOSP. A survey of healthy elderly using the VOSP battery was conducted in Spain and showed that age was a strong predictor of scores on all subtests, that educational level affected some subtests (Object Decision and Silhouettes), and that gender had no significant eff.Tivities, are crucial for the diagnosis of dementia [2]. In general, the course of AD begins with the impairment of memory and executive functions followed by the gradual involvement of other functions, including complex visual disturbance [3,4]. Visuospatial function in AD can be impaired at the beginning of the disease, declining gradually with the progression of the disease, and can lead to visual agnosia [5]. The visuospatial deficits appear primarily as difficulties with reading, problems in discriminating form and color, an inability to perceive contrast, difficulties in visual spatial orientation and motion detection, agnosia and difficulty in developing visual strategies [6]. These deficits are related to the presence os neuropathology in the visual association cortex [4]. Katz and Rimmer [7] observed numerous plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the visual association areas in patientswithout primary visual deficits, which may underlie these deficits. The assessment of these deficits is important in providing more diagnostic information for dementia and new perspectives for intervention. Visuospatial function involves identification of a stimulus and its location. The tasks of identifying and locating objects activate different cortical areas, such as Brodmann area 5 of the superior parietal lobe, the parieto-occipital junction and the premotor areas [7,8,9]. As well as these tasks activate distinct neural circuits that project from the striate cortex and to the occipitotemporal (ventral pathway) and occipitoparietal (dorsal pathway) cortices, respectively [10,11]. The 23148522 ventral pathway acts in the visual recognition of objects, whereas the dorsal pathway acts in the recognition of space [12]. Most neuropsychological tests that evaluate visuospatial function require other cognitive skills [13]. For example, the Cubes test (WAIS-III), Rey Complex Figure test, and the clock drawing test require visuoconstructive skills [2], and Hooper’s Test requires analysis and visual synthesis. However, some tests assess only visual orientation and consist of finding objects in space. Some testsVisuospatial Function in Early Alzheimer’s Diseaseinvolve tasks that assess visual perception and the spatial discrimination of position [8], such as the cancellation tests and the Judgment of Line Orientation test. Among these latter methods is the Visual Object and Space Perception (VOSP) battery [14,15]. The VOSP battery evaluates space and object perception, and the battery proceeds from the assumption that these perceptions are functionally independent [8]. The subtests require simple responses, and each of them focuses on one component of visual perception, while minimizing the involvement of other cognitive skills [15]. The VOSP battery seems to be sensitive to changes in visuospatial function in various diseases, e.g., posterior cortical atrophy [16] and Lewy body dementia [17]. Additionally, the VOSP has been reported to detect a lack of impairment in visuospatial functions in Huntington’s disease patients [12] and patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes [18]. Some studies were developed with elderly people and patients with dementia to assess visuospatial function with the VOSP. A survey of healthy elderly using the VOSP battery was conducted in Spain and showed that age was a strong predictor of scores on all subtests, that educational level affected some subtests (Object Decision and Silhouettes), and that gender had no significant eff.

Tivities, are crucial for the diagnosis of dementia [2]. In general, the

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