Th a 548-04-9 correction for the bone area [23].Methods Study Design and ParticipantsWe conducted a cross-sectional study at the reference hospital for infectious diseases in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil (2,480,790 inhabitants) [15], between June 2009 and March 2010. The 101-bed state hospital is one of three public health institutions providing specialized inpatient care for patients with AIDS in Salvador and it accounted for 32 of citywide AIDS hospitalizations during the study period [16]. Using an estimated prevalence of malnutrition of 50 , we determined our target sample size (n = 118) to achieve a precision of +/28 around the measured prevalence of malnutrition. This figure was based on the expected number of AIDS-related hospitalizations in persons 20 to 59 years of age in Salvador in 2008 [16]. We recruited participants by reviewing hospital registries five days a week and consecutively enrolling all patients from 20 to 59 years of age who: 1) were admitted to the hospital with a known diagnosis of AIDS, or 2) demonstrated serological evidence of HIV infection with a rapid test (DPP HIV 1/2; BioManguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and met the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition for AIDS in the first seven days of hospitalization [17]. Patients were ineligible for study entry if they required urgent intensive care support or if they were cognitively impaired and unaccompanied by a legal representative to provide informed consent. Patients with repeated hospitalizations during the study period were enrolled in the study only once. Patients diagnosed with AIDS after the seventh day of hospitalization were also ineligible for study entry because nutritional evaluation at that time could be unrepresentative of nutritional status at hospital admission.Statistical MethodsWe analyzed data using Epi Info version 3.4.3 (U.S. CDC; Atlanta, USA) and SAS 9.1.3 (SAS MedChemExpress Microcystin-LR Institute Inc.; Cary, USA). Patient characteristics were described using frequencies for categorical variables and medians and interquartile ranges for continuous variables. For two patients with undetectable levels of plasma HIV RNA, we assigned the HIV viral load as log10 1.70 copies/mL (50 copies/mL). We categorized CD4 counts as above or below 200 cells/mm3. We also categorized the 15857111 time since patients’ first knowledge of their HIV disease in relation to the current hospitalization as occurring at hospitalization, within 2 years (representing an opportunity for recent initiation of antiviral therapy), 3?0 years prior (intermediate-term survivors), or 11 years prior (long-term survivors). Lastly, we converted monthly household income from the Brazilian currency (real) to the United States dollar (USD) using the average exchange rate of 0.5485 15900046 for the study period and stratified the patients according to their daily per capita household income as USD ,2.00, 2.00?.99, 5.00?.99 and 10.00. We considered weight loss of 10.1 to 20.0 to be moderate and weight loss .20.0 to be severe. From tricipital skinfold thickness measurements we estimated body fat composition [19] and from the mid-upper arm muscle area with a correction for the bone area we estimated lean body mass according to the formula developed by Heymsfield [24] and adapted by Gibson [25].Data CollectionWe interviewed patients and reviewed charts using standardized forms to obtain data on demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and clinical history, including current or prior HAART us.Th a correction for the bone area [23].Methods Study Design and ParticipantsWe conducted a cross-sectional study at the reference hospital for infectious diseases in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil (2,480,790 inhabitants) [15], between June 2009 and March 2010. The 101-bed state hospital is one of three public health institutions providing specialized inpatient care for patients with AIDS in Salvador and it accounted for 32 of citywide AIDS hospitalizations during the study period [16]. Using an estimated prevalence of malnutrition of 50 , we determined our target sample size (n = 118) to achieve a precision of +/28 around the measured prevalence of malnutrition. This figure was based on the expected number of AIDS-related hospitalizations in persons 20 to 59 years of age in Salvador in 2008 [16]. We recruited participants by reviewing hospital registries five days a week and consecutively enrolling all patients from 20 to 59 years of age who: 1) were admitted to the hospital with a known diagnosis of AIDS, or 2) demonstrated serological evidence of HIV infection with a rapid test (DPP HIV 1/2; BioManguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and met the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition for AIDS in the first seven days of hospitalization [17]. Patients were ineligible for study entry if they required urgent intensive care support or if they were cognitively impaired and unaccompanied by a legal representative to provide informed consent. Patients with repeated hospitalizations during the study period were enrolled in the study only once. Patients diagnosed with AIDS after the seventh day of hospitalization were also ineligible for study entry because nutritional evaluation at that time could be unrepresentative of nutritional status at hospital admission.Statistical MethodsWe analyzed data using Epi Info version 3.4.3 (U.S. CDC; Atlanta, USA) and SAS 9.1.3 (SAS Institute Inc.; Cary, USA). Patient characteristics were described using frequencies for categorical variables and medians and interquartile ranges for continuous variables. For two patients with undetectable levels of plasma HIV RNA, we assigned the HIV viral load as log10 1.70 copies/mL (50 copies/mL). We categorized CD4 counts as above or below 200 cells/mm3. We also categorized the 15857111 time since patients’ first knowledge of their HIV disease in relation to the current hospitalization as occurring at hospitalization, within 2 years (representing an opportunity for recent initiation of antiviral therapy), 3?0 years prior (intermediate-term survivors), or 11 years prior (long-term survivors). Lastly, we converted monthly household income from the Brazilian currency (real) to the United States dollar (USD) using the average exchange rate of 0.5485 15900046 for the study period and stratified the patients according to their daily per capita household income as USD ,2.00, 2.00?.99, 5.00?.99 and 10.00. We considered weight loss of 10.1 to 20.0 to be moderate and weight loss .20.0 to be severe. From tricipital skinfold thickness measurements we estimated body fat composition [19] and from the mid-upper arm muscle area with a correction for the bone area we estimated lean body mass according to the formula developed by Heymsfield [24] and adapted by Gibson [25].Data CollectionWe interviewed patients and reviewed charts using standardized forms to obtain data on demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and clinical history, including current or prior HAART us.

Th a correction for the bone area [23].Methods Study Design and

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