Ntitis. Our results, based on the gene expression pattern of the inflammatory markers (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNFa, RANTES and MCP-1) and the immunohistochemical evaluation, confirmedThe protein expression of IRF4 and CCL18 in periodontitis-affected tissueThe expression of two of the top 50 differentially upregulated genes, IRF4 and CCL18 where further investigated at the protein level in gingival tissue samples from five additional patients with periodontitis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the transcription factor IRF4 and the MedChemExpress 374913-63-0 chemokine CCL18 were expressed at the protein level in gingival tissue from patients with periodontitis (Fig. 7). IRF4 protein was expressed in cells including fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in the gingival connective tissue, as shown by morphology. For the chemokine CCL18, cellular staining of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells was observed, as wellTable 5. Selected upregulated genes 1326631 identified in periodontitis and involved in other chronic inflammatory diseases.Ensemble ID ENSG00000143297 ENSG00000116748 ENSG00000137265 ENSG00000048462 ENSGGene symbol FCRL5 AMPD1 IRF4 TNFRSF17 LILRADescription Fc receptor-like 5 adenosine MedChemExpress Asiaticoside A monophosphate deaminase 1 interferon regulatory factor 4 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 17 leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily A (without TM domain), member 3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (pulmonary and activation-regulatedFold change 25.24 24.97 20.10 10.43 7.Log2 fold change 4.66 4.64 4.33 3.38 2.p value5.98e-27 0.0046 2.31e-29 4.80e-06 0.Involvement in other diseases Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)ENSGCCL6.2.1.22e-Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046440.tGene Expression in PeriodontitisFigure 7. Immunohistochemical stainings of IRF4 and CCL18 in the connective tissue of periodontitis-affected gingival sections. A. Immunohistochemical staining of IRF4. B. Immunohistochemical staining of CCL18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046440.gthat the inflammation in periodontitis involves elevated levels of locally produced cytokines in the periodontium, as has been previously demonstrated [28]. However, cluster analysis revealed that three of the patients (patient no. 6, 7 and 2) deviated from the clustering pattern. For example, the healthy gingival tissue collected from patient 6 clustered with the periodontitis-affected tissue, which could be due to moderate inflammatory infiltration (H E score 2) observed in the healthy gingival tissue. The clustering pattern in tissue from patient 7, where the healthy and diseased gingival tissue also clustered together, could be partly explained by the patient’s history of osteoarthritis, which is a 1326631 disease associated with elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFa [29]. The cluster pattern for patient 2 differed from the rest of the patient group, which could be related to this patient undergoing investigation for the inflammatory disease sarcoidosis, and in turn might affect the systemic inflammatory response. Previous studies report that oral manifestations of sarcoidosis include aggressive destruction of the periodontium with rapid periodontal bone loss [30,31,32]. One of these studies also emphasizes the importance of patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis to be evaluated for other systemic involvements [31]. Thus, regarding our clustering pattern, it cannot be ruled o.Ntitis. Our results, based on the gene expression pattern of the inflammatory markers (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNFa, RANTES and MCP-1) and the immunohistochemical evaluation, confirmedThe protein expression of IRF4 and CCL18 in periodontitis-affected tissueThe expression of two of the top 50 differentially upregulated genes, IRF4 and CCL18 where further investigated at the protein level in gingival tissue samples from five additional patients with periodontitis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the transcription factor IRF4 and the chemokine CCL18 were expressed at the protein level in gingival tissue from patients with periodontitis (Fig. 7). IRF4 protein was expressed in cells including fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in the gingival connective tissue, as shown by morphology. For the chemokine CCL18, cellular staining of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells was observed, as wellTable 5. Selected upregulated genes 1326631 identified in periodontitis and involved in other chronic inflammatory diseases.Ensemble ID ENSG00000143297 ENSG00000116748 ENSG00000137265 ENSG00000048462 ENSGGene symbol FCRL5 AMPD1 IRF4 TNFRSF17 LILRADescription Fc receptor-like 5 adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 interferon regulatory factor 4 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 17 leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily A (without TM domain), member 3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (pulmonary and activation-regulatedFold change 25.24 24.97 20.10 10.43 7.Log2 fold change 4.66 4.64 4.33 3.38 2.p value5.98e-27 0.0046 2.31e-29 4.80e-06 0.Involvement in other diseases Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)ENSGCCL6.2.1.22e-Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046440.tGene Expression in PeriodontitisFigure 7. Immunohistochemical stainings of IRF4 and CCL18 in the connective tissue of periodontitis-affected gingival sections. A. Immunohistochemical staining of IRF4. B. Immunohistochemical staining of CCL18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046440.gthat the inflammation in periodontitis involves elevated levels of locally produced cytokines in the periodontium, as has been previously demonstrated [28]. However, cluster analysis revealed that three of the patients (patient no. 6, 7 and 2) deviated from the clustering pattern. For example, the healthy gingival tissue collected from patient 6 clustered with the periodontitis-affected tissue, which could be due to moderate inflammatory infiltration (H E score 2) observed in the healthy gingival tissue. The clustering pattern in tissue from patient 7, where the healthy and diseased gingival tissue also clustered together, could be partly explained by the patient’s history of osteoarthritis, which is a 1326631 disease associated with elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFa [29]. The cluster pattern for patient 2 differed from the rest of the patient group, which could be related to this patient undergoing investigation for the inflammatory disease sarcoidosis, and in turn might affect the systemic inflammatory response. Previous studies report that oral manifestations of sarcoidosis include aggressive destruction of the periodontium with rapid periodontal bone loss [30,31,32]. One of these studies also emphasizes the importance of patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis to be evaluated for other systemic involvements [31]. Thus, regarding our clustering pattern, it cannot be ruled o.

Ntitis. Our results, based on the gene expression pattern of the

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