Th human and rat C5 (Fig 1B).Histomorphologic evaluationSections (6? mm) of paraffin-embedded synovial tissue obtained from animal models of arthritis were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by two independent observers by using magnifications ranging from 256 to 400x. The degree of histomorphologic tissue damage was quantified by assessing a cumulative score resulting from the evaluation of different parameters related with the occurrence of the arthritic damage. Following a previously described method of analysis [22], the extent of joint inflammation was scored as follows: degree of synovial hyperplasia, from 0 to 2 (1? lines of regularly shaped synoviocytes = 0; 3? lines of irregularly shaped synoviocytes = 1; more than 5 lines of hypertrophied cells = 2), extent of leukocyte infiltration, from 0 to 3 (no infiltration = 0; scattered few infiltrating cells = 1; more Dimethylenastron site diffuse infiltration, in a surface area ,50 of the examined visible field = 2; a higher degree of tissue infiltration, or follicular aggregations = 3), presence of vascular lesions, from 0 to 2 (no lesions = 0; vasculitis or thrombosis in less than 50 of the visible/field vessels = 1; the same lesions in more than the 50 of the visible vessels = 2), percent diffusion of tissue fibrosis, from 0 to 3 (no alterations = 0; a 25?0 loss of the fat tissue component of synovial membranes = 1; more than 50 loss of the synovial fat tissue component = 2; complete derangement with 100 loss of synovial adipose components = 3). At least four specimens obtained from each 52232-67-4 web treated knee joints were examined.In vivo characterization of DNA encoding for anti-C5 neutralizing antibodyIn vivo DNA delivery and transfection was achieved by using DMRI-C reagent. The pUCOE vector encoding the recombinant molecule MB12/22 was purified and after appropriate reaction with DMRI-C was directly injected in the right knee of three groups of rats. As a control DMRI-C transfection reagent alone in PBS was administered to the left knee. The efficacy of Cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer was evaluated analyzing the synovial cells for the presence of DNA encoding MB12/22 by PCR at different time points after transfection. As shown in Figure 2A, DNA encoding the scFv-Fc was present in the synovial tissue. The peak was documented 3 days after DNA challenging in the right knee of all treated animals while it was absent in the controlateral knee and in other organs of the rats (data not shown). The presence of the antibody in the synovial fluid was also evaluated at protein level by western blot. Fig 2B shows the band corresponding to the miniantibody MB12/22 detected at day 3 after DNA injection in the lavage obtained from the right knee of 3 rats. The band was hardly detectable at day 7 while undetectable at day 14 in the right knee as well as in the left knee throughout the whole period of observation (data not shown). Histological analysis of synovial tissues revealed a normal structure and the absence of inflammatory cells, indicating the low toxic effect of DNA injection (Figure 3). Rat sera were also collected and analyzed for complement activity that remained unchanged after treatment (data not shown).Statistical analysisThe results were expressed as mean6SD. Data were compared by ANOVA using post-hoc analysis for paired multiple comparisons with Fisher’s corrected t test. A nonparametric MannWhitney test was used to determine the significance of differences between tissue damage scor.Th human and rat C5 (Fig 1B).Histomorphologic evaluationSections (6? mm) of paraffin-embedded synovial tissue obtained from animal models of arthritis were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by two independent observers by using magnifications ranging from 256 to 400x. The degree of histomorphologic tissue damage was quantified by assessing a cumulative score resulting from the evaluation of different parameters related with the occurrence of the arthritic damage. Following a previously described method of analysis [22], the extent of joint inflammation was scored as follows: degree of synovial hyperplasia, from 0 to 2 (1? lines of regularly shaped synoviocytes = 0; 3? lines of irregularly shaped synoviocytes = 1; more than 5 lines of hypertrophied cells = 2), extent of leukocyte infiltration, from 0 to 3 (no infiltration = 0; scattered few infiltrating cells = 1; more diffuse infiltration, in a surface area ,50 of the examined visible field = 2; a higher degree of tissue infiltration, or follicular aggregations = 3), presence of vascular lesions, from 0 to 2 (no lesions = 0; vasculitis or thrombosis in less than 50 of the visible/field vessels = 1; the same lesions in more than the 50 of the visible vessels = 2), percent diffusion of tissue fibrosis, from 0 to 3 (no alterations = 0; a 25?0 loss of the fat tissue component of synovial membranes = 1; more than 50 loss of the synovial fat tissue component = 2; complete derangement with 100 loss of synovial adipose components = 3). At least four specimens obtained from each treated knee joints were examined.In vivo characterization of DNA encoding for anti-C5 neutralizing antibodyIn vivo DNA delivery and transfection was achieved by using DMRI-C reagent. The pUCOE vector encoding the recombinant molecule MB12/22 was purified and after appropriate reaction with DMRI-C was directly injected in the right knee of three groups of rats. As a control DMRI-C transfection reagent alone in PBS was administered to the left knee. The efficacy of Cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer was evaluated analyzing the synovial cells for the presence of DNA encoding MB12/22 by PCR at different time points after transfection. As shown in Figure 2A, DNA encoding the scFv-Fc was present in the synovial tissue. The peak was documented 3 days after DNA challenging in the right knee of all treated animals while it was absent in the controlateral knee and in other organs of the rats (data not shown). The presence of the antibody in the synovial fluid was also evaluated at protein level by western blot. Fig 2B shows the band corresponding to the miniantibody MB12/22 detected at day 3 after DNA injection in the lavage obtained from the right knee of 3 rats. The band was hardly detectable at day 7 while undetectable at day 14 in the right knee as well as in the left knee throughout the whole period of observation (data not shown). Histological analysis of synovial tissues revealed a normal structure and the absence of inflammatory cells, indicating the low toxic effect of DNA injection (Figure 3). Rat sera were also collected and analyzed for complement activity that remained unchanged after treatment (data not shown).Statistical analysisThe results were expressed as mean6SD. Data were compared by ANOVA using post-hoc analysis for paired multiple comparisons with Fisher’s corrected t test. A nonparametric MannWhitney test was used to determine the significance of differences between tissue damage scor.

Th human and rat C5 (Fig 1B).Histomorphologic evaluationSections (6? mm) of

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