Dentified in [25]. The majority of Pho peaks overlapped with peaks of NELF (72 ), and 67 of Pho peaks Title Loaded From File overlap with both NELF and Spt5 (Figure 5C). We also compared peaks of Pho binding to data for NELF-B and NELF-E binding reported in [31]. In this data set, Pho peaks overlap with 74 of NELF-B, 75 of NELF-E and 72 with both NELF-B and NELF-E. Thus the vast majority of Pho binding sites co-localise with binding sites for factors known to regulate pausing. There are many more binding sites for Spt5 and NELF than for Pho in S2 cells, indicating that Pho is not a core component of the machinery regulating transcription elongation, but rather a factor that may influence its activity at a subset of genes. The ability of Pho to bind Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) in chromatized DNA is augmented by the GAGA factor (GAF; encoded by Trl) [32]. Mutations in pho and Trl interact in genetic assays, but a direct physical interaction between the Title Loaded From File proteins has not been detected [32,33,34]. GAF associates with 39 of the genes that have NELF, and GAF binding is often associated with promoter proximal paused polymerase [31,35,36]. We observe that 38 of Pho peaks overlap GAF peaks in S2 cells (Figure 5D). Although GAF may facilitate Pho binding at some sites, its presence is not always necessary for Pho recruitment.of Spt5 binding were identified from data in Gilchrist et al., 2010 and the binding data set for Pho was available as part of the modENCODE project [22]. We identified 5590 binding sites for Spt5 and 1862 for Pho in S2 cells. The vast majority of Pho binding sites (1424/1862; 76 ) overlap with Spt5 peaks (Figure 5A), while conversely 25 of Spt5 sites overlap with Pho peaks.DiscussionWe have detected a physical association of Pho and Spt5 in three different assays; yeast 2-hybrid, GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation of tagged proteins. Unfortunately we were unable to co-immunoprecipitate the endogenous proteins as the antibodies generously made available to us against the endogenous proteins were all rabbit polyclonals making co-immunoprecipitationTable 1. Genetic Interactions between Spt5, NELF-A alleles and phocv.Genotype wild-type Spt5[W049]/+ pho[cv]/pho[cv] Spt5[W049]/+; pho[cv]/pho[cv] Spt5[MGE-3]/+ pho[cv]/pho[cv] Spt5[MGE-3]/+; pho[cv]/pho[cv] NELF-A[KG]/+ pho[cv]/pho[cv] NELF-A[KG]/+; pho[cv]/pho[cv] doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070184.tTotal (n) 233 191 194 149 170 184 198 166 175Wing Phenotype 7 (3 ) 5 (2.6 ) 19 (9.8 ) 45 (30 ) 1 (0.6 ) 21 (11 ) 56 (28 ) 17 (10 ) 22 (12 ) 61 (21 )Ectopic sex combs 0 0 102 (53 ) 108 (72 ) 0 102 (55 ) 106 (54 ) 0 92 (53 ) 176 (61 )Gene Regulation by Spt5 and PleiohomeoticGene Regulation by Spt5 and PleiohomeoticFigure 3. Pho and Spt5 function together in wing maturation. A wing inflation phenotype is observed in approximately 10 of phocv/phocv B) and 51 of 386Y-Gal4.UAS-RNAi pho males (n = 136), but not in 765-Gal4.UAS-RNAi-pho. E) Percentage of flies of indicated genotypes displaying wing inflation phenotypes. F) Ventral view of da-Gal4.UAS-RNAi-pho male, red arrow points to ectopic sex comb on middle (mesothoracic) leg. G) Dorsal view of da-Gal4.UAS-RNAi-pho male displaying homeotic transformations in the abdominal segments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070184.gFigure 4. Depletion of Spt5 leads to cell death in vivo. A) Homozygous clones of the Spt5MGE null allele are not viable. Attempts were made to make clones of homozygous Spt5MGE cells using the FLP/ FRT technique [61]. Third instar imag.Dentified in [25]. The majority of Pho peaks overlapped with peaks of NELF (72 ), and 67 of Pho peaks overlap with both NELF and Spt5 (Figure 5C). We also compared peaks of Pho binding to data for NELF-B and NELF-E binding reported in [31]. In this data set, Pho peaks overlap with 74 of NELF-B, 75 of NELF-E and 72 with both NELF-B and NELF-E. Thus the vast majority of Pho binding sites co-localise with binding sites for factors known to regulate pausing. There are many more binding sites for Spt5 and NELF than for Pho in S2 cells, indicating that Pho is not a core component of the machinery regulating transcription elongation, but rather a factor that may influence its activity at a subset of genes. The ability of Pho to bind Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) in chromatized DNA is augmented by the GAGA factor (GAF; encoded by Trl) [32]. Mutations in pho and Trl interact in genetic assays, but a direct physical interaction between the proteins has not been detected [32,33,34]. GAF associates with 39 of the genes that have NELF, and GAF binding is often associated with promoter proximal paused polymerase [31,35,36]. We observe that 38 of Pho peaks overlap GAF peaks in S2 cells (Figure 5D). Although GAF may facilitate Pho binding at some sites, its presence is not always necessary for Pho recruitment.of Spt5 binding were identified from data in Gilchrist et al., 2010 and the binding data set for Pho was available as part of the modENCODE project [22]. We identified 5590 binding sites for Spt5 and 1862 for Pho in S2 cells. The vast majority of Pho binding sites (1424/1862; 76 ) overlap with Spt5 peaks (Figure 5A), while conversely 25 of Spt5 sites overlap with Pho peaks.DiscussionWe have detected a physical association of Pho and Spt5 in three different assays; yeast 2-hybrid, GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation of tagged proteins. Unfortunately we were unable to co-immunoprecipitate the endogenous proteins as the antibodies generously made available to us against the endogenous proteins were all rabbit polyclonals making co-immunoprecipitationTable 1. Genetic Interactions between Spt5, NELF-A alleles and phocv.Genotype wild-type Spt5[W049]/+ pho[cv]/pho[cv] Spt5[W049]/+; pho[cv]/pho[cv] Spt5[MGE-3]/+ pho[cv]/pho[cv] Spt5[MGE-3]/+; pho[cv]/pho[cv] NELF-A[KG]/+ pho[cv]/pho[cv] NELF-A[KG]/+; pho[cv]/pho[cv] doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070184.tTotal (n) 233 191 194 149 170 184 198 166 175Wing Phenotype 7 (3 ) 5 (2.6 ) 19 (9.8 ) 45 (30 ) 1 (0.6 ) 21 (11 ) 56 (28 ) 17 (10 ) 22 (12 ) 61 (21 )Ectopic sex combs 0 0 102 (53 ) 108 (72 ) 0 102 (55 ) 106 (54 ) 0 92 (53 ) 176 (61 )Gene Regulation by Spt5 and PleiohomeoticGene Regulation by Spt5 and PleiohomeoticFigure 3. Pho and Spt5 function together in wing maturation. A wing inflation phenotype is observed in approximately 10 of phocv/phocv B) and 51 of 386Y-Gal4.UAS-RNAi pho males (n = 136), but not in 765-Gal4.UAS-RNAi-pho. E) Percentage of flies of indicated genotypes displaying wing inflation phenotypes. F) Ventral view of da-Gal4.UAS-RNAi-pho male, red arrow points to ectopic sex comb on middle (mesothoracic) leg. G) Dorsal view of da-Gal4.UAS-RNAi-pho male displaying homeotic transformations in the abdominal segments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070184.gFigure 4. Depletion of Spt5 leads to cell death in vivo. A) Homozygous clones of the Spt5MGE null allele are not viable. Attempts were made to make clones of homozygous Spt5MGE cells using the FLP/ FRT technique [61]. Third instar imag.

Dentified in [25]. The majority of Pho peaks overlapped with peaks of

About author

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.