In multiple rounds of binding to and release from MBP. Some passenger proteins reach their native conformation by spontaneous folding after one or more cycles, while in other cases MBP facilitates the interaction between an incompletely folded passenger protein and one or moreendogenous chaperones. In both cases, MBP serves primarily as a “holdase”, keeping the incompletely folded passenger protein from forming insoluble aggregates until either spontaneous or chaperone-mediated folding can occur. A third class of passenger proteins is unable to fold via either of these pathways and exists perpetually in an incompletely folded state, either as an intramolecular or intermolecular (i.e., micelle-like) aggregate. These passenger proteins typically precipitate after they are cleaved from MBP by a site-specific protease [46]. The utilization of MBP as a “holdase” during the production of recombinant proteins may be of considerable SR3029 practical value in some cases. For instance, it may be fruitful to co-express GroEL/S along with MBP fusion proteins in cases when the yield of active recombinant protein is poor in spite of MBP tagging. Even though co-expression of GroEL/S with His6-MBP-G3PDH and His6MBP-DHFR did not lead to any appreciable enhancement of enzymatic activity (Figure S3), indicating that endogenous chaperone levels were sufficient to fold all of the passenger protein in these instances, the yield of other passenger proteins might beThe Mechanism of Solubility Enhancement by MBPFigure 7. A model illustrating the roles that MBP plays in the production of recombinant proteins (see text for discussion). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049589.gimproved by this approach. It would also be of interest to examine the effect of 374913-63-0 web co-expressing various types of eukaryotic chaperones on the folding of MBP fusion proteins in E. coli. Conversely, because solubility enhancement is an intrinsic property of MBP, the production of MBP fusion proteins in eukaryotic expression systems might yield favorable results. Recently, MBP has also been used to maintain proteins that contain disulfide-bonds in a soluble state in the E. coli cytoplasm so that they could be acted upon by appropriate redox enzymes that were co-expressed in the same cellular compartment [47]. It seems likely that additional ways of exploiting the “holdase” activity of MBP for the production of recombinant proteins will be forthcoming.Figure S2 Interaction of NusA fusion proteins with GroEL/S. (A) Lysed cells co-expressing His6-NusA-GFP and either wild-type GroE or the GroE3? variant are shown under blue or white light illumination. Cells co-expressing GroE3? fluoresce more intensely than cells co-expressing wild-type GroE as a result of enhanced GFP folding. Cells expressing only the His6-NusA-GFP fusion protein are shown on the left. (B) SDSPAGE analysis of total and soluble proteins from the cells in (A). T, total intracellular protein; S, soluble intracellular protein. (TIF) Figure S3 Enzymatic activity from cells co-expressing GroEL/S and His6-MBP-fusions. (A) G3PDH activity. (B) DHFR activity. The data with error bars are expressed as mean 6 standard error of the mean (n = 3). Extracts from “wild-type” E. coli K-12 were prepared by sonication from equal amounts of cells expressing GroEL and GroES (pGroEL/S) or His6-MBP-fusions (G3PDH or DHFR) alone, or fusion proteins with GroEL/S (pGroEL/S+His6-MBP-G3PDH or His6-MBP-DHFR). The extracts were centrifuged at 14000 g for 10 min, and.In multiple rounds of binding to and release from MBP. Some passenger proteins reach their native conformation by spontaneous folding after one or more cycles, while in other cases MBP facilitates the interaction between an incompletely folded passenger protein and one or moreendogenous chaperones. In both cases, MBP serves primarily as a “holdase”, keeping the incompletely folded passenger protein from forming insoluble aggregates until either spontaneous or chaperone-mediated folding can occur. A third class of passenger proteins is unable to fold via either of these pathways and exists perpetually in an incompletely folded state, either as an intramolecular or intermolecular (i.e., micelle-like) aggregate. These passenger proteins typically precipitate after they are cleaved from MBP by a site-specific protease [46]. The utilization of MBP as a “holdase” during the production of recombinant proteins may be of considerable practical value in some cases. For instance, it may be fruitful to co-express GroEL/S along with MBP fusion proteins in cases when the yield of active recombinant protein is poor in spite of MBP tagging. Even though co-expression of GroEL/S with His6-MBP-G3PDH and His6MBP-DHFR did not lead to any appreciable enhancement of enzymatic activity (Figure S3), indicating that endogenous chaperone levels were sufficient to fold all of the passenger protein in these instances, the yield of other passenger proteins might beThe Mechanism of Solubility Enhancement by MBPFigure 7. A model illustrating the roles that MBP plays in the production of recombinant proteins (see text for discussion). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049589.gimproved by this approach. It would also be of interest to examine the effect of co-expressing various types of eukaryotic chaperones on the folding of MBP fusion proteins in E. coli. Conversely, because solubility enhancement is an intrinsic property of MBP, the production of MBP fusion proteins in eukaryotic expression systems might yield favorable results. Recently, MBP has also been used to maintain proteins that contain disulfide-bonds in a soluble state in the E. coli cytoplasm so that they could be acted upon by appropriate redox enzymes that were co-expressed in the same cellular compartment [47]. It seems likely that additional ways of exploiting the “holdase” activity of MBP for the production of recombinant proteins will be forthcoming.Figure S2 Interaction of NusA fusion proteins with GroEL/S. (A) Lysed cells co-expressing His6-NusA-GFP and either wild-type GroE or the GroE3? variant are shown under blue or white light illumination. Cells co-expressing GroE3? fluoresce more intensely than cells co-expressing wild-type GroE as a result of enhanced GFP folding. Cells expressing only the His6-NusA-GFP fusion protein are shown on the left. (B) SDSPAGE analysis of total and soluble proteins from the cells in (A). T, total intracellular protein; S, soluble intracellular protein. (TIF) Figure S3 Enzymatic activity from cells co-expressing GroEL/S and His6-MBP-fusions. (A) G3PDH activity. (B) DHFR activity. The data with error bars are expressed as mean 6 standard error of the mean (n = 3). Extracts from “wild-type” E. coli K-12 were prepared by sonication from equal amounts of cells expressing GroEL and GroES (pGroEL/S) or His6-MBP-fusions (G3PDH or DHFR) alone, or fusion proteins with GroEL/S (pGroEL/S+His6-MBP-G3PDH or His6-MBP-DHFR). The extracts were centrifuged at 14000 g for 10 min, and.

In multiple rounds of binding to and release from MBP. Some

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