Ransmission electron microscopy was employed to visualise ultrastructural alterations associated with the antifungal effects of SBTX on cells from C. albicans strain SC5314.Materials and Methods C. albicans growth conditionsC. albicans SC5314 was used in this study as a reference strain. Yeast cells were grown in Sabouraud’s dextrose broth (SDB). Like many antifungal proteins and peptides, SBTX is ineffective in fullstrength medium [15]. Therefore, for experiments involving treatment with the protein, a four-fold diluted SDB was used, allowing the protein to be fully active 10457188 without significantly affecting the growth of any of the C. albicans strains used for this study. SBTX was purified as described previously [1]. Briefly, soybean defatted powder was extracted with 0.025 M Tris-HCl/ 0.005 M dithiothreitol (DTT), pH 7.5, (1:5, m/v) for 3 h at 4uC under constant stirring and filtered through cheesecloth. The press cake was re-extracted for 2 h under the same conditions. After centrifugation at 21,000 g for 30 min at 4uC, the supernatant, denoted as the crude extract, was fractionated by saturation to 2055 with solid ammonium sulphate. The precipitated proteins were dissolved in and Title Loaded From File dialysed against the extracting buffer and applied to a DEAE-cellulose Title Loaded From File column equilibrated with the same buffer. After elution of the unbound proteins, they were concentrated by precipitation with 90 ammonium sulphate, exhaustively dialysed against 0.025 M Tris-HCl/0.005 M DTT, pH 7.5, and applied to a CM-Sepharose column equilibrated with the above-mentioned buffer. The SBTX enriched fraction was 1315463 eluted with 0.2 M NaCl added to the equilibrating buffer, concentrated with 90 ammonium sulphate, dialysed against 0.025 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, and applied to a Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column equilibrated with 0.025 M Tris-HCl containing 0.5 M NaCl, pH 7.5, from which the purified SBTX was obtained.readings at 600 nm were taken at time zero and every 15 min for 24 h. Each pair of samples (untreated and SBTX-treated cells) constituted a single experiment and three biologically independent experiments were performed. For transcriptional profiling, the cells were grown in SDB/4 in the presence or absence of SBTX (200 mgNmL21). The cultures were grown until they reached an OD600 of approximately 0.5, after 16 and 18 h, for untreated and SBTX-treated cells. The cells were harvested by centrifugation (3000 g at 25uC), snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at 280uC. Each pair of samples (untreated and SBTX-treated cells) constituted a single experiment and two biologically independent experiments were performed.Extraction of total RNARNA was extracted with an RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Dusseldorf, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instruc?tions. The samples were quantified using standard spectrophotometry; an A260/280 ratio.1.8 was considered acceptable. The quality of the total RNA was determined with an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyser (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA). The samples were utilised for further studies if the ribosomal 28S and 18S RNA bands were present.Microarray hybridisationMicroarrays were performed using the Low RNA Input Linear Amplification Kit Plus One-Color Protocol (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) and an Agilent One-Color RNA Spike-in Kit (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) following the manufacturer’s standard procedure. Global gene expression analysis was performed using the Candida project custom 4644 K design array (Agilent).Ransmission electron microscopy was employed to visualise ultrastructural alterations associated with the antifungal effects of SBTX on cells from C. albicans strain SC5314.Materials and Methods C. albicans growth conditionsC. albicans SC5314 was used in this study as a reference strain. Yeast cells were grown in Sabouraud’s dextrose broth (SDB). Like many antifungal proteins and peptides, SBTX is ineffective in fullstrength medium [15]. Therefore, for experiments involving treatment with the protein, a four-fold diluted SDB was used, allowing the protein to be fully active 10457188 without significantly affecting the growth of any of the C. albicans strains used for this study. SBTX was purified as described previously [1]. Briefly, soybean defatted powder was extracted with 0.025 M Tris-HCl/ 0.005 M dithiothreitol (DTT), pH 7.5, (1:5, m/v) for 3 h at 4uC under constant stirring and filtered through cheesecloth. The press cake was re-extracted for 2 h under the same conditions. After centrifugation at 21,000 g for 30 min at 4uC, the supernatant, denoted as the crude extract, was fractionated by saturation to 2055 with solid ammonium sulphate. The precipitated proteins were dissolved in and dialysed against the extracting buffer and applied to a DEAE-cellulose column equilibrated with the same buffer. After elution of the unbound proteins, they were concentrated by precipitation with 90 ammonium sulphate, exhaustively dialysed against 0.025 M Tris-HCl/0.005 M DTT, pH 7.5, and applied to a CM-Sepharose column equilibrated with the above-mentioned buffer. The SBTX enriched fraction was 1315463 eluted with 0.2 M NaCl added to the equilibrating buffer, concentrated with 90 ammonium sulphate, dialysed against 0.025 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, and applied to a Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column equilibrated with 0.025 M Tris-HCl containing 0.5 M NaCl, pH 7.5, from which the purified SBTX was obtained.readings at 600 nm were taken at time zero and every 15 min for 24 h. Each pair of samples (untreated and SBTX-treated cells) constituted a single experiment and three biologically independent experiments were performed. For transcriptional profiling, the cells were grown in SDB/4 in the presence or absence of SBTX (200 mgNmL21). The cultures were grown until they reached an OD600 of approximately 0.5, after 16 and 18 h, for untreated and SBTX-treated cells. The cells were harvested by centrifugation (3000 g at 25uC), snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at 280uC. Each pair of samples (untreated and SBTX-treated cells) constituted a single experiment and two biologically independent experiments were performed.Extraction of total RNARNA was extracted with an RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Dusseldorf, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instruc?tions. The samples were quantified using standard spectrophotometry; an A260/280 ratio.1.8 was considered acceptable. The quality of the total RNA was determined with an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyser (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA). The samples were utilised for further studies if the ribosomal 28S and 18S RNA bands were present.Microarray hybridisationMicroarrays were performed using the Low RNA Input Linear Amplification Kit Plus One-Color Protocol (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) and an Agilent One-Color RNA Spike-in Kit (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) following the manufacturer’s standard procedure. Global gene expression analysis was performed using the Candida project custom 4644 K design array (Agilent).

Ransmission electron microscopy was employed to visualise ultrastructural alterations associated with

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