Rlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully understood, to date, such marker-orientated therapeutic strategies are not implemented in the clinical realm [15]. Experimental data point to the early involvement of monocytes and macrophages during atherogenesis development [16]. HMGB1, an ubiquitous nuclear protein, constitutively expressed in quiescent cells [17], has been detected within atherosclerotic plaques, being released by lesional macrophages, necrotic cells and foam cells [9,18?0]. In further 1676428 studies, HMBG1 has been reported as a potent mediator of tissue remodeling in experimental atherosclerosis and in diabetes [19,21?3]. In addition to these experimental proofs, Yan-et al recently elegantly demonstrated that HMGB1 levels are associated with angiographically significant CAD both in nondiabetic and in type 2 diabetic patients in a large patient cohort (n = 512) [24], whereas we previously showed that a close association is present between HMGB1 and infarct size in patients with acute coronary syndromes [9,10]. In the present study, we observed significant associations between HMGB1 and coronary plaque composition. HMGB1 was higher in patients with non-calcified plaque and the highest in patients with more complex `remodeled’ lesions. This is in line with previous experimental data, where high expression ofHMGB1 could be demonstrated especially in cells driving the process of plaque remodeling such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic and smooth muscle cells [20,23] and with recent clinical data [24]. Considering both pathophysiologic mechanisms, i.e. inflammation or cellular stress for HMBG1 and necrosis for hsTnT it is not surprising that complementary value was observed for the two biomarkers, in terms of prediction of non-calcified and remodeled plaque. Thus, patients with both increased hsTnT and HMBG1 yielded high rates of vulnerable, non- calcified and remodeled plaque (96 and 77 , respectively) compared to patients with only increased either HsTnT or HMBG1. Similarly, a very high negative predictive value for the presence of noncalcified and remodeled plaque (95 and 100 respectively) was noted in patients within the lower POR8 chemical information tertiles for both biomarkers, which surpassed the negative predictive value of each biomarker separately (Table 3). In agreement to previous studies both noncalcified plaque and hs-TnT were related to clinical outcome [6,7,25], whereas the predictive value of HMBG1 levels was found to be similar to that of cardiac hs-TnT. Although, our data cannot provide an explanation of causality it is conceivable, that expression of HMGB1 in lesional macrophages could promote vascular inflammation and vascular remodeling, as detected with CCTA images. Such remodeled, rupture-prone plaques may cause chronic sub-clinical embolization of atherothrombotic debris, resulting in myocardial order Pentagastrin micro-necrosis and further release of the alarmin HMGB1 by `stressed’ cardiomyocytes[26]. Increased HMBG1 expression may then elicit further pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant response[27], possibly being part of a vicious circle, which encompasses both chronic plaque inflammation, atherothrombosis and myocardial micronecrosis[28]. A schematic illustration of such interactions between the vascular and the myocardial bed can be appreciated in Figure 3. In previous studies we and others reported a close relation between hs-TnT and plaque composition, while an independent association with hs-CRP could not be established [11,12].Rlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully understood, to date, such marker-orientated therapeutic strategies are not implemented in the clinical realm [15]. Experimental data point to the early involvement of monocytes and macrophages during atherogenesis development [16]. HMGB1, an ubiquitous nuclear protein, constitutively expressed in quiescent cells [17], has been detected within atherosclerotic plaques, being released by lesional macrophages, necrotic cells and foam cells [9,18?0]. In further 1676428 studies, HMBG1 has been reported as a potent mediator of tissue remodeling in experimental atherosclerosis and in diabetes [19,21?3]. In addition to these experimental proofs, Yan-et al recently elegantly demonstrated that HMGB1 levels are associated with angiographically significant CAD both in nondiabetic and in type 2 diabetic patients in a large patient cohort (n = 512) [24], whereas we previously showed that a close association is present between HMGB1 and infarct size in patients with acute coronary syndromes [9,10]. In the present study, we observed significant associations between HMGB1 and coronary plaque composition. HMGB1 was higher in patients with non-calcified plaque and the highest in patients with more complex `remodeled’ lesions. This is in line with previous experimental data, where high expression ofHMGB1 could be demonstrated especially in cells driving the process of plaque remodeling such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic and smooth muscle cells [20,23] and with recent clinical data [24]. Considering both pathophysiologic mechanisms, i.e. inflammation or cellular stress for HMBG1 and necrosis for hsTnT it is not surprising that complementary value was observed for the two biomarkers, in terms of prediction of non-calcified and remodeled plaque. Thus, patients with both increased hsTnT and HMBG1 yielded high rates of vulnerable, non- calcified and remodeled plaque (96 and 77 , respectively) compared to patients with only increased either HsTnT or HMBG1. Similarly, a very high negative predictive value for the presence of noncalcified and remodeled plaque (95 and 100 respectively) was noted in patients within the lower tertiles for both biomarkers, which surpassed the negative predictive value of each biomarker separately (Table 3). In agreement to previous studies both noncalcified plaque and hs-TnT were related to clinical outcome [6,7,25], whereas the predictive value of HMBG1 levels was found to be similar to that of cardiac hs-TnT. Although, our data cannot provide an explanation of causality it is conceivable, that expression of HMGB1 in lesional macrophages could promote vascular inflammation and vascular remodeling, as detected with CCTA images. Such remodeled, rupture-prone plaques may cause chronic sub-clinical embolization of atherothrombotic debris, resulting in myocardial micro-necrosis and further release of the alarmin HMGB1 by `stressed’ cardiomyocytes[26]. Increased HMBG1 expression may then elicit further pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant response[27], possibly being part of a vicious circle, which encompasses both chronic plaque inflammation, atherothrombosis and myocardial micronecrosis[28]. A schematic illustration of such interactions between the vascular and the myocardial bed can be appreciated in Figure 3. In previous studies we and others reported a close relation between hs-TnT and plaque composition, while an independent association with hs-CRP could not be established [11,12].

Rlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully understood, to date, such

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