Served for all loading concentrations in the range of 4.060.661026 cm/s to 5.360.861026 cm/s (Table 1).Polypeptide Transport across Caco-2 MonolayerTransport of three different CAL-120 Macromolecular pharmaceutical peptides was studied across the Caco-2 monolayers at different loading concentrations. Three different polypeptides, bovine insulin, salmon Calcitonin, and exenatide (exendin-4) were chosen for this study. Briefly, the polypeptides were loaded individually in apical chambers at various loading concentrations; bovine Biotin NHS web insulin (0.05, 0.15, 0.6, and 1 mg/well), salmon Calcitonin (5, and 24 mg/ well), and exenatide (0.3, 1, 3, and 9 mg/well). Different doses were selected for different polypeptides based upon the values reported in literature to not only approach therapeutic efficacy but also to provide a valid comparison with the results obtained in 21-day monolayer system. Polypeptides were incubated with Caco-2 monolayers for 5 hrs at room temperature with gentle shaking. TEER measurements were performed and samples were collected from basolateral chambers of the Caco-2 plates to determine total drug transport and apparent permeability at different concentrations. All three polypeptides were analyzed with their specific ELISA kits; bovine insulin (Mercodia, Inc., Winston Salem, NC, USA), calcitonin and exenatide (extraction-free ELISA kits, Bachem Americas, Inc., Torrance, CA, USA).Dose-dependent Transport of Macromolecular Peptides across Caco-2 MonolayersPermeation of three different polypeptides, bovine insulin, salmon calcitonin, and exenatide (exendin-4) across Caco-2 monolayers was studied. The TEER values did not exhibit a drop during the course of the experiment, indicating that the cell monolayer was intact and the transport of bovine insulin from apical to basolateral chamber did not damage the monolayer (Fig. 3a). The total amount of bovine insulin transported through the monolayer was directly proportional to the dose loaded in the apical chamber (Fig. 3b). A cumulative permeation of 1.560.8 mg, 3.560.7 mg, 13.564.0 mg, and 24.965.0 mg was observed at the loading concentrations for 0.05, 0.15, 0.6, and 1 mg/well respectively and was dose-dependent (r2: 0.99). These numbers translate into a cumulative percent transport of approximately 2.5?.0 of the loaded dose, which confirms poor permeability of macromolecular peptides across the monolayer. Calculated apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) for bovine insulin were in the range of 4.560. 961026 cm/s (1 mg) to 5.462.961026 cm/s (0.05 mg) (Table 1). Permeability of salmon Calcitonin was determined at 2 different apical loading concentrations of 5 mg/well and 24 mg/well respectively. As in the case of insulin experiments, the TEER values did not drop during the course of the experiment (Fig. 4a). Transport of salmon Calcitonin was dose-dependent and total amount of the peptide transported increased in direct proportion to the loading concentration on the apical side. A total of 5562 ng (5 mg loading), and 192695 ng (24 mg loading) Calcitonin wasDetermination of Apparent Permeability (Papp)The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of all polypeptides were calculated using the following equation 19]: Papp dQ 1 | dt A:C0 ??Where dQ/dt is 1326631 the amount of solutes transported across the Caco-2 barrier in time dt, C0 is the solute concentration in apical compartment 26001275 at time zero, and A is the cross-sectional area of the epithelium in contact with apical solution. Total percent.Served for all loading concentrations in the range of 4.060.661026 cm/s to 5.360.861026 cm/s (Table 1).Polypeptide Transport across Caco-2 MonolayerTransport of three different macromolecular pharmaceutical peptides was studied across the Caco-2 monolayers at different loading concentrations. Three different polypeptides, bovine insulin, salmon Calcitonin, and exenatide (exendin-4) were chosen for this study. Briefly, the polypeptides were loaded individually in apical chambers at various loading concentrations; bovine insulin (0.05, 0.15, 0.6, and 1 mg/well), salmon Calcitonin (5, and 24 mg/ well), and exenatide (0.3, 1, 3, and 9 mg/well). Different doses were selected for different polypeptides based upon the values reported in literature to not only approach therapeutic efficacy but also to provide a valid comparison with the results obtained in 21-day monolayer system. Polypeptides were incubated with Caco-2 monolayers for 5 hrs at room temperature with gentle shaking. TEER measurements were performed and samples were collected from basolateral chambers of the Caco-2 plates to determine total drug transport and apparent permeability at different concentrations. All three polypeptides were analyzed with their specific ELISA kits; bovine insulin (Mercodia, Inc., Winston Salem, NC, USA), calcitonin and exenatide (extraction-free ELISA kits, Bachem Americas, Inc., Torrance, CA, USA).Dose-dependent Transport of Macromolecular Peptides across Caco-2 MonolayersPermeation of three different polypeptides, bovine insulin, salmon calcitonin, and exenatide (exendin-4) across Caco-2 monolayers was studied. The TEER values did not exhibit a drop during the course of the experiment, indicating that the cell monolayer was intact and the transport of bovine insulin from apical to basolateral chamber did not damage the monolayer (Fig. 3a). The total amount of bovine insulin transported through the monolayer was directly proportional to the dose loaded in the apical chamber (Fig. 3b). A cumulative permeation of 1.560.8 mg, 3.560.7 mg, 13.564.0 mg, and 24.965.0 mg was observed at the loading concentrations for 0.05, 0.15, 0.6, and 1 mg/well respectively and was dose-dependent (r2: 0.99). These numbers translate into a cumulative percent transport of approximately 2.5?.0 of the loaded dose, which confirms poor permeability of macromolecular peptides across the monolayer. Calculated apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) for bovine insulin were in the range of 4.560. 961026 cm/s (1 mg) to 5.462.961026 cm/s (0.05 mg) (Table 1). Permeability of salmon Calcitonin was determined at 2 different apical loading concentrations of 5 mg/well and 24 mg/well respectively. As in the case of insulin experiments, the TEER values did not drop during the course of the experiment (Fig. 4a). Transport of salmon Calcitonin was dose-dependent and total amount of the peptide transported increased in direct proportion to the loading concentration on the apical side. A total of 5562 ng (5 mg loading), and 192695 ng (24 mg loading) Calcitonin wasDetermination of Apparent Permeability (Papp)The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of all polypeptides were calculated using the following equation 19]: Papp dQ 1 | dt A:C0 ??Where dQ/dt is 1326631 the amount of solutes transported across the Caco-2 barrier in time dt, C0 is the solute concentration in apical compartment 26001275 at time zero, and A is the cross-sectional area of the epithelium in contact with apical solution. Total percent.

Served for all loading concentrations in the range of 4.060.661026 cm/s

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