Owed that the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) Title Loaded From File showed a gradual increase during gestation, reaching a peak at delivery in the three different experimental groups (Fig. 4a). However, rats fed 30/53 DP/DCH showed a significant increase in the expression of CPT-1 with respect to groups fed 10/73 or 20/63Dietary Protein and Mammary Gland MetabolismDiscussionSeveral studies have shown that nutritionally adverse conditions during pregnancy can lead to physiologic adaptations, including changes in gene expression, to cope with the limited availability of amino acids. However, little is known about the metabolic adaptations that occur in the different organs of the mother during pregnancy and lactation under different proportions of DP/DCH. One of the most profound adaptations is in energy homeostasis, where the mother faces the competing needs of meeting her own energy demands, supplying nutrients to the growing fetus, and also establishing a positive energy balance to promote the storage of energy resources in preparation for the large metabolic demands of lactation. The results in the present study show that only dams fed 30/53 DP/DCH have a prompt recovery in their body weight at day 12 of lactation. In mammary tissue, the onset of gestation promotes the activation of anabolic processes, such as protein synthesis mediated by mTOR1 and the phosphorylation of its target protein S6K, which are barely affected by the DP/DCH ratio, however, it is clear that a 1315463 low protein 10 DP even when energy is compensated with Title Loaded From File carbohydrates was not enough to sustain body weight of the dam during lactation. The onset of the lactation period dramatically increases the expression of the lipogenic enzyme FAS mediated by the transcription factor SREBP1, and reduces the expression of the CPT-1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These results suggest that there is a significant supply of fatty acid to form triglycerides for milk production that will help the newborn gain energy and maintain body temperature [37]. The increase in the expression of lipogenic genes in this tissue was not affected by the proportion of DP/DCH. The lactating mammary gland is one of the most active triglyceride-synthesizing organs in the body and requires glyceroneogenesis mediated by PEPCK [30]. In the mammary gland, PEPCK may contribute to the milk content by providing the backbone for triglyceride synthesis [30]. Interestingly, our data showed that during lactation, PEPCK expression depends on the DP concentration, which suggests that although the fatty acid synthesis is not affected by the DP/DCH ratio (Fig. 3a), fatty acid esterification may be the limiting step in rats fed the 10 casein diet due to a reduction in the production of glycerol. This, in turn, may result in a decrease in triglyceride formation and therefore, affect the growth rate of the offspring (Fig. 1a). In contrast, during gestation, we observed a gradual increase in the expression of CPT-1 in the mammary gland reaching a peak of expression immediately before birth, when estradiol levels are the lowest [38]. This suggest that estradiol levels during pregnancy suppress the expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation and promote those of triglyceride synthesis in the mammary gland. However, immediately before birth, the decrease in estradiol levels is associated with a concomitant increase in CPT-1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, our data showed that a high-protein/ low-carbohydrate diet r.Owed that the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) showed a gradual increase during gestation, reaching a peak at delivery in the three different experimental groups (Fig. 4a). However, rats fed 30/53 DP/DCH showed a significant increase in the expression of CPT-1 with respect to groups fed 10/73 or 20/63Dietary Protein and Mammary Gland MetabolismDiscussionSeveral studies have shown that nutritionally adverse conditions during pregnancy can lead to physiologic adaptations, including changes in gene expression, to cope with the limited availability of amino acids. However, little is known about the metabolic adaptations that occur in the different organs of the mother during pregnancy and lactation under different proportions of DP/DCH. One of the most profound adaptations is in energy homeostasis, where the mother faces the competing needs of meeting her own energy demands, supplying nutrients to the growing fetus, and also establishing a positive energy balance to promote the storage of energy resources in preparation for the large metabolic demands of lactation. The results in the present study show that only dams fed 30/53 DP/DCH have a prompt recovery in their body weight at day 12 of lactation. In mammary tissue, the onset of gestation promotes the activation of anabolic processes, such as protein synthesis mediated by mTOR1 and the phosphorylation of its target protein S6K, which are barely affected by the DP/DCH ratio, however, it is clear that a 1315463 low protein 10 DP even when energy is compensated with carbohydrates was not enough to sustain body weight of the dam during lactation. The onset of the lactation period dramatically increases the expression of the lipogenic enzyme FAS mediated by the transcription factor SREBP1, and reduces the expression of the CPT-1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These results suggest that there is a significant supply of fatty acid to form triglycerides for milk production that will help the newborn gain energy and maintain body temperature [37]. The increase in the expression of lipogenic genes in this tissue was not affected by the proportion of DP/DCH. The lactating mammary gland is one of the most active triglyceride-synthesizing organs in the body and requires glyceroneogenesis mediated by PEPCK [30]. In the mammary gland, PEPCK may contribute to the milk content by providing the backbone for triglyceride synthesis [30]. Interestingly, our data showed that during lactation, PEPCK expression depends on the DP concentration, which suggests that although the fatty acid synthesis is not affected by the DP/DCH ratio (Fig. 3a), fatty acid esterification may be the limiting step in rats fed the 10 casein diet due to a reduction in the production of glycerol. This, in turn, may result in a decrease in triglyceride formation and therefore, affect the growth rate of the offspring (Fig. 1a). In contrast, during gestation, we observed a gradual increase in the expression of CPT-1 in the mammary gland reaching a peak of expression immediately before birth, when estradiol levels are the lowest [38]. This suggest that estradiol levels during pregnancy suppress the expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation and promote those of triglyceride synthesis in the mammary gland. However, immediately before birth, the decrease in estradiol levels is associated with a concomitant increase in CPT-1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, our data showed that a high-protein/ low-carbohydrate diet r.

Owed that the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) showed a

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