Peptide VP2, VIP and VP2 could compete for the same binding site on the VPAC1 receptor. A control peptide had no effect on the binding of the purchase 115103-85-0 positive phage clone to CHO-K1/ VPAC1 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to evaluate the binding specificity of the FITC-VP2 peptide. We found that when incubated together, the FITC-VP2 peptide bound specifically to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells (Figure 5B). When VIP was incubated with CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells, the binding activity of FITC-VPTable 1. Amino acid sequences of selected phage clones from 12-mer peptide library.NO. VP1 VP2 11967625 VP3 VP4 VP5 VP6 VP7 VP8 VP9 VP10 VP11 VP12 VP13 VP14 VP15 VP16 VP17 VPPhage clones Mp1-3/Mp7/Sp26/INp47-48/INp58 Mp4/Mp6/Mp8-9/Mp13/Mp17/Mp19/Sp21/30/34/37/INp41/44/54/57/59 Mp5/Sp27 Mp10/Mp20/Sp23 Mp11/Mp16/Sp24/Sp31/Sp40 Mp12/Mp14-15/Mp18/Sp32 Sp22 Sp28/INp46/INp50/INp51/INp60 Sp29 Sp33/INp45 Sp35 Sp36 Sp38 Sp39 INp43 INp49/INp56 INp52 INpPeptide sequence TVKYSTLVEWPY GFRFGALHEYNS NSIALINDTHKR TWKFEPLGTFID DTFHSPLVALVS YTSHFPLETWPQ ETVRQAEELFYV SFRFFPLDMWPH AYTTVPYMATLP GGSIAASELEYY HSTLKLGALTNY GSFHSPLLAYVS DTGHSPEPGKVP GTFHSPLLDHKS TVTFAPLRMWHP GWLRSPSLLFSN TYTFRPLYEPPL GYTFQPLNEWAIFrequency 8 16 2 3 5 5 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1After the fourth round of panning, 60 phage clones were randomly selected. The phage clones were sequenced and three phage clones (Sp25, INp42 and INp55) lacked the exogenous sequence. 18 different peptide sequences were obtained and designated VP1 to VP18. The frequency represents the number of the peptide sequence appeared in the whole selected phage clones. Here, Mp represents phages recovered from an acid elution fraction, Sp represents a specific elution by VIP, INp represents phages recovered from a lysate fraction. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054264.tScreening of a VPAC1-Binding PeptideFigure 3. Identification of the binding selectivity of the 18 clones by cellular ELISA. Phage clones binding to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells (blue bars) and wild-type CHO-K1 cells (red bars) were detected by the HRP-conjugated anti-M13 phage antibody. PBS and URps (unrelated phage, an amplified phage randomly selected from the original phage peptide library) were used as negative controls. Triplicate determinations were done at each data point, and average OD450 nm of two types of cells are shown. Single asterisk denotes p,0.01(OD450 nm of each clone binding to CHO-K1/ VPAC1 cells versus CHO-K1 cells). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054264.gfluorescence intensities of control CHO-K1 cells incubated with FITC-VP2 and FITC-URp were 3.660.7 and 4.460.7 (Figure 7E), respectively (p.0.05). These results suggest that VP2 peptide binds specifically to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells and several types of colorectal cancer cell lines.DiscussionCRC, a predominant gastrointestinal Lixisenatide malignancy, has been the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths over the past several years [28]. In the progressive stage, CRC is strongly invasive, has a high post-operative recurrence rate and is difficult to cure [29]. When treated in the early stages, CRC patients can achieve relatively positive outcomes; thus, early detection is crucial for reducing CRC mortality. Cancer cells often display high numbers of certain cell surface molecules, such as tumorassociated antigens or specific receptors, that infrequently occur in normal tissues and represent potential targets for tumor diagnosis and treatment. In our previous study, we first reported that testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50) was abnormally and highly e.Peptide VP2, VIP and VP2 could compete for the same binding site on the VPAC1 receptor. A control peptide had no effect on the binding of the positive phage clone to CHO-K1/ VPAC1 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to evaluate the binding specificity of the FITC-VP2 peptide. We found that when incubated together, the FITC-VP2 peptide bound specifically to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells (Figure 5B). When VIP was incubated with CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells, the binding activity of FITC-VPTable 1. Amino acid sequences of selected phage clones from 12-mer peptide library.NO. VP1 VP2 11967625 VP3 VP4 VP5 VP6 VP7 VP8 VP9 VP10 VP11 VP12 VP13 VP14 VP15 VP16 VP17 VPPhage clones Mp1-3/Mp7/Sp26/INp47-48/INp58 Mp4/Mp6/Mp8-9/Mp13/Mp17/Mp19/Sp21/30/34/37/INp41/44/54/57/59 Mp5/Sp27 Mp10/Mp20/Sp23 Mp11/Mp16/Sp24/Sp31/Sp40 Mp12/Mp14-15/Mp18/Sp32 Sp22 Sp28/INp46/INp50/INp51/INp60 Sp29 Sp33/INp45 Sp35 Sp36 Sp38 Sp39 INp43 INp49/INp56 INp52 INpPeptide sequence TVKYSTLVEWPY GFRFGALHEYNS NSIALINDTHKR TWKFEPLGTFID DTFHSPLVALVS YTSHFPLETWPQ ETVRQAEELFYV SFRFFPLDMWPH AYTTVPYMATLP GGSIAASELEYY HSTLKLGALTNY GSFHSPLLAYVS DTGHSPEPGKVP GTFHSPLLDHKS TVTFAPLRMWHP GWLRSPSLLFSN TYTFRPLYEPPL GYTFQPLNEWAIFrequency 8 16 2 3 5 5 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1After the fourth round of panning, 60 phage clones were randomly selected. The phage clones were sequenced and three phage clones (Sp25, INp42 and INp55) lacked the exogenous sequence. 18 different peptide sequences were obtained and designated VP1 to VP18. The frequency represents the number of the peptide sequence appeared in the whole selected phage clones. Here, Mp represents phages recovered from an acid elution fraction, Sp represents a specific elution by VIP, INp represents phages recovered from a lysate fraction. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054264.tScreening of a VPAC1-Binding PeptideFigure 3. Identification of the binding selectivity of the 18 clones by cellular ELISA. Phage clones binding to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells (blue bars) and wild-type CHO-K1 cells (red bars) were detected by the HRP-conjugated anti-M13 phage antibody. PBS and URps (unrelated phage, an amplified phage randomly selected from the original phage peptide library) were used as negative controls. Triplicate determinations were done at each data point, and average OD450 nm of two types of cells are shown. Single asterisk denotes p,0.01(OD450 nm of each clone binding to CHO-K1/ VPAC1 cells versus CHO-K1 cells). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054264.gfluorescence intensities of control CHO-K1 cells incubated with FITC-VP2 and FITC-URp were 3.660.7 and 4.460.7 (Figure 7E), respectively (p.0.05). These results suggest that VP2 peptide binds specifically to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells and several types of colorectal cancer cell lines.DiscussionCRC, a predominant gastrointestinal malignancy, has been the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths over the past several years [28]. In the progressive stage, CRC is strongly invasive, has a high post-operative recurrence rate and is difficult to cure [29]. When treated in the early stages, CRC patients can achieve relatively positive outcomes; thus, early detection is crucial for reducing CRC mortality. Cancer cells often display high numbers of certain cell surface molecules, such as tumorassociated antigens or specific receptors, that infrequently occur in normal tissues and represent potential targets for tumor diagnosis and treatment. In our previous study, we first reported that testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50) was abnormally and highly e.

Peptide VP2, VIP and VP2 could compete for the same binding

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