E observations of the IVF blastocysts, in which variable geneFigure 4. IVF embryo sexing by PCR. a representative PCR result for embryo sexing is shown. M is a 100-bp ladder as a DNA size marker. Male and female indicate M1 and F1 fetal fibroblast cell lines, respectively. 1?2 lanes are shown for IVF embryos. A single PCR product (250-bp and 105-bp) was detected for the SRY and the ACTB, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051398.gX-Linked Gene Transcripts in Pig BlastocystsFigure 5. X-linked gene transcription patterns of IVF blastocysts. The dot plots of mRNA transcript levels for X-linked in female and male in vivo and in vitro fertilized (IVF) blastocysts. Asterisks indicate significant difference between in vivo and IVF embryos of each sex as well as between female and male IVF embryos. A relative fold change of mRNA levels of female and male IVF blastocysts compared with that of the in vivo female ones defined as 1. Asterisks indicate significant difference between in vivo and IVF blastocysts of each sex as well as between female and male IVF embryos (P,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051398.gexpression was only exhibited by a small subset of individuals. The expression levels of other genes were within the normal range. These results indicate that transcriptional differences in X-linked genes existed between female and male cloned blastocysts, even though individual cloned embryos of both sexes displayed abnormal expression levels and inter-embryo variability was observed in the expression of several genes.Changes in X-linked Gene Transcription Patterns in Cloned Embryos by Treatment of Scriptaid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, after SCNTWe explored if treatment with Scriptaid (Sc), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), could improve reprogramming efficiency following SCNT and thus ameliorate aberrant X-linked gene transcription patterns in cloned embryos. 1531364 To compare differences in expression between cell lines for X-linked genes, two fetal fibroblast (FF) cell lines for each sex were used as donor nuclei for SCNT. As expected, among the cell lines, equivalent expression was observed in most of the X-linked genes tested, with the exception of PGK1, which showed a significant decrease in the M2 line compared with the other lines (Figure 7). XIST was exclusively expressed in females and was over 10,000 times higher than in males. Thus, these cell lines appear to have achieved compensation of X-linked gene dosage between females and males. Although no differences were observed in the cleavage rates of cloned embryos 50-14-6 site produced by any of these cell lines, the CAL 120 manufacturer blastocyst rate differed significantly among them (from 11.3 to 18.1 , P,0.05). Groups treated with Sc showed markedly increased blastocyst rates compared with untreated groups, although the range of the influence of this treatment on the cloned embryos differed among cell lines (P,0.05, Table 1). Therefore, the results confirmed that the Sc treatment enhanced the developmental potential of cloned porcine embryos, as previously described [28]. However, after SCNT, the different cell lines had different in vitro developmental potentials and the higher blastocyst rate in the donor cell line was not the same for full-term embryos, indicating that in vitro developmental potential in the different cell lines did not correlate with cloning efficiency (Table 2). Figure 8 shows that cloned embryos from lines of the same sex had significantly different average expression levels.E observations of the IVF blastocysts, in which variable geneFigure 4. IVF embryo sexing by PCR. a representative PCR result for embryo sexing is shown. M is a 100-bp ladder as a DNA size marker. Male and female indicate M1 and F1 fetal fibroblast cell lines, respectively. 1?2 lanes are shown for IVF embryos. A single PCR product (250-bp and 105-bp) was detected for the SRY and the ACTB, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051398.gX-Linked Gene Transcripts in Pig BlastocystsFigure 5. X-linked gene transcription patterns of IVF blastocysts. The dot plots of mRNA transcript levels for X-linked in female and male in vivo and in vitro fertilized (IVF) blastocysts. Asterisks indicate significant difference between in vivo and IVF embryos of each sex as well as between female and male IVF embryos. A relative fold change of mRNA levels of female and male IVF blastocysts compared with that of the in vivo female ones defined as 1. Asterisks indicate significant difference between in vivo and IVF blastocysts of each sex as well as between female and male IVF embryos (P,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051398.gexpression was only exhibited by a small subset of individuals. The expression levels of other genes were within the normal range. These results indicate that transcriptional differences in X-linked genes existed between female and male cloned blastocysts, even though individual cloned embryos of both sexes displayed abnormal expression levels and inter-embryo variability was observed in the expression of several genes.Changes in X-linked Gene Transcription Patterns in Cloned Embryos by Treatment of Scriptaid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, after SCNTWe explored if treatment with Scriptaid (Sc), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), could improve reprogramming efficiency following SCNT and thus ameliorate aberrant X-linked gene transcription patterns in cloned embryos. 1531364 To compare differences in expression between cell lines for X-linked genes, two fetal fibroblast (FF) cell lines for each sex were used as donor nuclei for SCNT. As expected, among the cell lines, equivalent expression was observed in most of the X-linked genes tested, with the exception of PGK1, which showed a significant decrease in the M2 line compared with the other lines (Figure 7). XIST was exclusively expressed in females and was over 10,000 times higher than in males. Thus, these cell lines appear to have achieved compensation of X-linked gene dosage between females and males. Although no differences were observed in the cleavage rates of cloned embryos produced by any of these cell lines, the blastocyst rate differed significantly among them (from 11.3 to 18.1 , P,0.05). Groups treated with Sc showed markedly increased blastocyst rates compared with untreated groups, although the range of the influence of this treatment on the cloned embryos differed among cell lines (P,0.05, Table 1). Therefore, the results confirmed that the Sc treatment enhanced the developmental potential of cloned porcine embryos, as previously described [28]. However, after SCNT, the different cell lines had different in vitro developmental potentials and the higher blastocyst rate in the donor cell line was not the same for full-term embryos, indicating that in vitro developmental potential in the different cell lines did not correlate with cloning efficiency (Table 2). Figure 8 shows that cloned embryos from lines of the same sex had significantly different average expression levels.

E observations of the IVF blastocysts, in which variable geneFigure 4. IVF

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